Chapter 2 Mental Health and Mental Illness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Mental Health and Mental Illness Deck (85)
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Cultures differ not only in the way they view mental illness but also in the types of behavior categorized as mental illness. For example, the content of a person's delusions, hallucinations, obsessional thoughts, and phobias often reflects?

what is important in the person's culture.


A number of culture-related syndromes appear to be more influenced by culture alone and are not seen in all areas of the world. For example, one form of mental illness recognized in parts of Southeast Asia is running amok, in which someone?
- Pibloktoq is an uncontrollable desire to?

(usually a male) runs around engaging in furious, almost indiscriminate violent behavior.
- Pibloktoq is an uncontrollable desire to tear off one's clothing and expose oneself to severe winter weather; it is a recognized form of psychological disorder in parts of Greenland, Alaska, and the Arctic regions of Canada.


Many believe that the helpers of choice for many people from minority cultures are their traditional helpers/therapists. This is particularly true for problems that have psychological or psychosocial aspects. One example would be people of Central and Latin American cultures. Many people from this area of the world may prefer?

curanderos (male healers) or curanderas (female healers), who would be sought for healing a number of symptoms that are perceived to originate from psychological components, such as susto (fright) and mal de ojo (evil eye)


Another example is that of the Mexican and Mexican Americans who primarily prefer?

female healers. The practices employed by these healers are a mixture of Catholicism, ancient Mayan and Aztec cultures, and herbology


psychotherapy would be considered the treatment of last resort in many cultures because?

(1) it is unavailable, (2) shame is attached to using therapies in the dominant culture, or (3) there are more effective or preferred treatments in their own culture


The most effective therapists will be those who are eclectic in their?

knowledge, come from a background of working with different cultures, have a broad knowledge of coping strategies, and are flexible in their approach


What is stigma?
The American Heritage Dictionary (1991) defines stigma as

“a mark of infamy, disgrace or reproach.” People often feel that stigma disqualifies one from full social acceptance. Many groups are stigmatized in our society


What are the effects of stigma?

Stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness are often major barriers to success in?

relationships, employment, and treatment programs. Even worse, efforts to achieve rehabilitation and recovery from mental illness can be sabotaged by prejudice and negative assumptions. The availability of health care in general is also affected by the stigma of mental illness. People with mental illness receive fewer medical services than those not labeled in this manner


Mental health can be conceptualized along a continuum, from?

mild to moderate to severe to psychosis.


There are many important aspects of mental health

happiness, control over behavior, appraisal of reality, effectiveness in work, a healthy self-concept, presence of satisfying relationships, and effective coping strategies


The processes that lead to stigmatization (labeling, stereotyping, status, loss, and discrimination in a context of power imbalance) can lead to an increase in?

social isolation, an enhanced struggle to recover, poor social functioning, significant barriers to obtaining psychiatric and medical services, and more. The mental anguish and excruciating pain caused by stigmatization effect tremendous damage to individuals and their families, groups, and/or cultures.


The study of epidemiology can help identify?

high-risk groups and behaviors. In turn, this can lead to a better understanding of the causes of some disorders. Prevalence rates help us identify the proportion of a population with a mental disorder at a given time.


Clinicians use the five axes of the DSM and the GAF scale as a guide for?

diagnosing and categorizing mental disorders, allowing for a more holistic approach to the assessment. Medical condition, psychosocial and environmental influences, and present and past levels of functioning are considered.


Using well-conceived nursing diagnoses helps target the symptoms and needs of patients so that ideally they may achieve a?

higher level of functioning and a better quality of life.


The influence of culture on behavior and the way in which symptoms present may reflect a person's?

cultural patterns. Symptoms need to be understood in terms of a person's cultural background.


Caution is recommended for all health care professionals concerning the damage and disservice that stigmatizing/stereotyping can cause for medical and mental health patients. Stigmatizing is acknowledged to be a barrier to?

proper or appropriate mental health/recovery and medical services as well. Indeed, it may even prevent a person from accessing or receiving help. Stigmatizing/stereotyping causes shame and pain for the individual and their families, or the groups being stigmatized, and greatly impacts the quality of life or ability to lead a healthy life.


Mental illness is defined in relation to the?

culture, time in history, political system, and group in which it occurs.


Axis V of the DSM multiaxial system:
1.refers to medical illnesses.
2.reports psychosocial and environmental problems.
3.indicates a need for substance abuse treatment.
4.describes a person's level of functioning.

4.describes a person's level of functioning.


Why is it important for a nurse to be aware of the multiple factors that can influence an individual's mental health?

The nurse diagnoses and treats human responses, which are influenced by many factors.


Factors that affect a person's mental health are: (select all that apply) systems.
2.developmental events.
3.socioeconomic status.
4.cultural beliefs. systems.
2.developmental events.
4.cultural beliefs.


The DSM-IV-TR diagnosis distinguishes a person's specific psychiatric disorder, whereas a nursing diagnosis offers a framework for identifying interventions for phenomena a patient is experiencing.



Which question will the nurse ask in order to assess a client’s ability to think clearly?
“Are you employed full time?”
“Do you feel guilty about your recent divorce?”
“How do you plan to afford getting your own apartment?”
“What do you think is your most valuable personal characteristic?”

“How do you plan to afford getting your own apartment?”

Clear thinking is demonstrated by the ability to problem solve using good judgment and logically reasoning to arrive at an insightful conclusion. Clear thinking would be demonstrated by arriving at a plan to live independently that demonstrates those qualities. Employment demonstrates productivity; identifying valuable personal characteristics is associated with a healthy sense of self-value; undue guilt reflects ability to manage anxiety and fear.


The nurse, striving to minimize the bias of a Western view on what is considered acceptable behavior, will consult which mental health associated resource?

-Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI)
-Glossary of Cultural Concepts of Distress
-The client’s past and present mental health assessment
-The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI)

The CFI assesses the client’s cultural perception of distress, social supports such as family and religion, and relationship factors between the patient and provider including language and discrimination experiences in the societal majority. While useful resources, none of the remaining options focus on these cultural perceptions.


When considering prevalence, the nurse will focus on which disorder(s) when identifying the focus of a community mental health screening?
Anxiety disorders
Affective disorders
Alcohol dependence
Any substance abuse

Anxiety disorders
Over a 12-month period, anxiety disorders have an 18.1% prevalence affecting an estimated 57 million people. Affective disorders 9.5% (30 million); alcohol dependence 6.3% (16.5 million); any substance abuse 9.4% (24.6 million).


The nurse recognizes that the greatest barrier to successful mental health treatment and recovery is demonstrated by which client?
The teenager who fears being rejected by his peers
The young homeless adult who cannot keep clinic appointments
The elderly Syrian immigrant who speaks only minimal English
The middle-aged adult who cannot afford prescription medication

The teenager who fears being rejected by his peers

Stigma is defined as a collection of negative attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts that influence public perception of the mentally ill. Stigma contributes to fear, rejection, and discrimination against the mentally ill that taint and discount the individual, and stigma has been acknowledged as a major barrier to mental health treatment and recovery. The teenager is afraid of being stigmatized by peers and so is much less likely to seek and/or comply with mental health treatment. The remaining options demonstrate barriers but none are as powerful as stigma.