chapter 2 "Normal Aspects of Articulation" Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 2 "Normal Aspects of Articulation" Deck (56)
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1

what consists of an organized set or system of sounds that are used to convey meaning?

speech

2

What includes the collection of words that are used in phrases and sentences and the grammar rules of the language that we use to create phrases and sentences?

language

3

What two perspective can speech sounds be viewed?

1. motor production (speech)
2. units that facilitate the expression of meaning (language)

4

What are sounds called that are studied as part of the language system? (these help to derive a speakers meaning)

phonemes

5

What? is the minimal sound elements that represent and distinguish language units

morphemes or words

6

which is more detailed: phonemic or phonetic transcriptions?

phonetic

7

A phonetic transcription is sensitive to ______ variation within a phoneme class.

sound. An example: allophone

8

what is an allophone?

numerous sets of distinct sounds, some of which may belong to the same phoneme family. (example pop...the initial /p/ sounds different than the final /p/)

9

phonemic transcription are enclosed in .....
phonetic transcriptions are enclosed in....

( / / )
( [ } )

10

what are the 2 types of allophonic variations?

complementary distribution
free variation

11

what is complementary distribution?

two (or more) allophones never occur in exactly the same phonetic environment.

12

what is free variation?

when they occur in the same phonetic context. ( Pop will have an aspirated initial /p/ and the final /p/ can be aspirated or not)

13

Phonemes are combined to produce meaningful units called...

morphemes (words)

14

Meaning that is ascribed to individual words is called....

semantics

15

describe the process from the information-processing model of verbal formulation and utterance production.

cognitive
1. syntactic and semantic
2. phonologic
3. phonetic (communicates to working memory)
4. motor control (communicates to working memory)
5. auditory

16

information at the cognitive level is used to make decision at what levels?

semantic and syntactic

17

what is semantic level sometimes referred to as?

lexicalization

18

what is the second stage in the information-processing model?

phonologic (word's sound pattern)

19

What level is after phonologic in the information-processing model?

phonetic

20

what are the two kinds of processing involved in utterance production?

controlled (this makes demands on working memory)
automatic (does not require working memory)

21

Are syntactic, semantic and phonological processing automatic or controlled?

automatic

22

what are the 6 principle organs and/or subsystems used int speech production?

1. respiratory system
2. larynx (vocal fold vibrations)
3. velopharynx (separates oral and nasal cavities)
4. tongue
5. lips
6. jaw

23

What system controls the speech process controlled?

nervous system

24

what is the basic function of the respiratory system in speech?

push air into the airway composed of the larynx and the oral and nasal cavities.

25

what is the basic function of the larynx?

regulate airflow to create voiced and voiceless segments.

26

The articulators are comprised of what 4 parts?

1. tongue
2. lips
3. jaw
4. velopharynx

27

Articulation is a matter of lengthening, ______ and ______ the vocal tract.

shortening and constricting

28

what is phonology?

the study of how sounds are put together to form words and other linguistic units

29

what is acoustic phonetics?

the study of of the relationship between articulation and the acoustic signal of speech

30

what is articulatory phonetics?

the study of how the articulators make individual sounds.

31

what is speech perception?

the study of how phonetic decisions are made from the acoustic signal.

32

is the vocal tract open or closed during vowels?

open

33

What are vowels sometimes called?

syllable nuclei

34

Vowel production ccan be described by specifying the position of what two articulators?

tongue and lips

35

Vowels in English are described as either being ______ or ________.

rounded
unrounded

36

What are the two major dimensions within the oral cavity that the tongue moves when producing speech?

front-back
high-low

37

Are tense vowels longer or shorter in duration ?

longer

38

Are English vowels voiced or voiceless?

voiced and nonnasal

39

Can English vowels be described as devoiced?

yes

40

What are the 3 major characteristics of a vowel?

1. tenseness/laxness
2. lip configuration
3. tongue position

41

what are diphthongs?

also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.

42

Many clinicians regard diphthongs as a combination of two vowels. What are the names?

onglide
offglide

43

What are distinctive features?

a set of binary features designed to describe the phonemes in all languages.

44

According to the Chomsky-Halle system, what are the 3 major class features of a voiced vowel?

1. sonorant
2. vocalic
3. consonantal

45

Is the vocal tract open or closed during consonant production?

partially or complete closure

46

What are the 3 classifications for consonants?

1. manner
2. placement
3. voicing

47

Describe fricative

narrow constriction, creates a noisy sounds as it rushes through a narrow passage way.

48

Describe Affricate

complete closure followed by a brief fricative (combination of stop and fricative segments)

49

Describe Nasal

complete oral closure
open velopharyngeal port

50

Describe the lateral /l/

sound escapes laterally

51

Describe rhotic /r/

tongue is turned back ("ray")

52

Describe a glide

"semi-vowel".
These sounds are followed by a vowel

53

What is a cognate?

when sounds differ only in voicing (/p/ and /b/)

54

do allophones change word meaning?

no.

55

When working with children we need to be aware of their speech ______

patterns

56

What are the 4 parts of the tongue?

1. tip
2. blade
3. dorsum
4. root