Chapter 2 Notes Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Notes Part 2 Deck (58):
1

oxygen

enters through respiratory organs, transported through blood, used by cell to release energy for metabolic activities, makes atp (needed for cellular respiration)

2

carbon dioxide

waste product given off into the air by lungs, byproduct of cellular respiration

3

inorganic salts

abundant in body parts and fluids, sources of necessary ions, helps transport substances in and out of cells, helps with contraction of muscles, helps conduct nerve impulses

4

examples of inorganic salts

sodium, potassium, and chlorine
(needed for polarization of cell membrane, helps with water balance)

5

organic

contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms (common organic substances found in cells)

6

carbohydrates

provide most of energy for cells (often stored as reserve energy)

7

carbohydrates contain

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

8

carbohydrates portion in diet

50 percent

9

carbohydrates are

2x as many h to o

10

monosaccharide

simple sugar
building blocks for more complex carbohydrates

11

examples of monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, and galactose

12

polysaccharides

many simple sugars joined together (plant starch)

13

animals synthesize

polysaccharide called glycogen

14

how many calories in a carbohydrate

4

15

how many calories in a protein

4

16

how many calories in a fat

9

17

lipids

insoluble in water

18

fats

used to build cell parts and to supply energy for cell activities

19

fatty acids and glycerol

building blocks of fat molecules

20

triglyceride

lipid composed of 3 fatty acids combined with a glycerol molecule (stored in fat as energy supply, most common lipid)

21

types of fatty acids

saturated , unsaturated, polyunsaturated

22

saturated

fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms (lacks double bond)

23

unsaturated

fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms

24

polyunsaturated

fatty acid with many double bonds between its carbon chain

25

lipids should be

no more than 30% diet

26

polyunsaturated fat is a

liquid at room temp

27

lipids compose

phospholipid bilayer
FAT MEMBRANE
PHOSPHOLIPIDS BRO

28

phospholipid

molecule that is similar to a fat molecule in that it contains a glycerol portion and fatty acid chains

29

difference between phospholipid and fat molecule

phospholipid has only two fatty acids instead of three

30

what is in place of the third fatty acid

phosphate group

31

job of phospholipids

energy and making membranes

32

steroids

complex structures that include interconnected rings of carbon atoms

33

most important steroids

cholesterol (helps to make more steroids, sex hormones and hormones from the adrenal glands)

34

proteins

serve as structural materials, energy sources, hormones, surface receptors, and enzyme

35

enzymes

proteins that serve as catalysts

36

amino acids

the building blocks for proteins

37

what happens when artery in brain is clogged

stroke

38

proteins job

build and repair

39

what do amino acids contain

amino group (nh2) and carboxyl group (cooh)

40

how many amino acids occur commonly in proteins

20

41

hydrogen bonds

maintain shape of protein molecules

42

diet should be 20%

protein

43

denaturing of hydrogen bonds

breaks down due to excessive heat, radiation, or chemical

44

example of denatured hydrogen bond

protein in the egg white

45

nucleic acids

the most fundamental of the compounds in cells because they control cell activities

46

nucleotides

bound atoms

47

each nucleotide consists of

ribose carbon sugar (pentode or guanine) a phosphate group, and 1 of several organic based

48

rna

ribonucleic acid, synthesize protein

49

dna

deoxyribonucleic acid
stores information in a molecular code to be used by cells to construct specific proteins

50

RMR stands for

Resting metabolic rate

51

Resting metabolic rate

Measure of energy expended for maintenance or normal body functions and homeostasis and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system

52

4 compartments to energy expenditure

RMR, TEF, TEE, AT

53

RMR accounts for

60-75% of total daily expenditure

54

TEF

Thermic effect of food

55

TEE

Thermic effect of exercise

56

At

Adaptive thermogenesis

57

Change in RMR due to

Body reacting to stress such as cold, overeating, and emotion (ADAPTIVE THERMOGENESIS)

58

1 lb

3500 kcal