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1

chemistry

Study of the nature of matter

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matter

anything that occupies space and has mass (include solids liquids and gases in our bodies as well as surroundings)

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all things are composed of

elements

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elements

Basic chemical substances that make up matter

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20 elements

needed by living things

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which for atoms make up 95% of the human body

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen

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atoms

tiny particles which make up elements

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nucleus

Central portion, positive

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parts of the atom

nucleus, electrons around the nucleus

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charge of the atom

neutral

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nucleus contains

protons, positively charged particles-neutrons, uncharged particles

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where are electrons found

found in a cloud outside the nucleus

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characteristics of electrons

very small, have a negative charge

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atomic number

equal to the number of protons in its nucleus

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atomic weight

average of the relative wait (mass numbers) of all the isotopes of an element, neutrons and protons

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bonding of atoms

when atoms combine with each other, they gain or lose electrons, or share electrons with other atoms

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electrons arranged in

shelves

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first shell

two electrons

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Second shell

eight electrons

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third shell

eight or 18 electrons

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ion

particle that gains or loses electrons

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atoms that lose electrons become ______ charged

positively

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negatively charged

atom that gains electrons

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ions

atom with a positive or negative electric charge

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ionic bond

atoms that bond by transferring electrons

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covalent bond

Chemical bond created by electron sharing between atoms

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hydrogen bond

when a hydrogen atom that is already covalently link to the electronegative atom is attacked by another nitrogen or oxygen atom and a bridge is formed between them

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molecule

combination of two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond to form a new particle

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compound

when two or more different kinds of atoms bond to form a new substance

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molecular formula

represent the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule

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h2o

2 atoms h 1 atom o

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c6h12o6

6 atoms c 12 atoms h 6 atoms o

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synthesis

when reactants combine to form a larger more complex molecule a+b->ab

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decomposition

when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms ab-> a+b

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exchange

parts of the reactant exchange partners, producing different product molecules
ab+cd=ad+cb

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reversible

if chemical bonds are made, they can be broken (all chemical reactions)
a+b ab

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electrolytes

substances that release ions in water

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acids

electrolyte that releases hydrogen (h+) ions in water
hcl-> h++cl-

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bases

electrolytes that release ions that combine with hydrogen ions
naoh->na + + oh

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1-6

acid

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8-14

base

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ph

relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various bodily fluids (concentrated units used to measure)

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ph scale

0 to 14

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7

neutral. contains equal hydroxyl (oh-) and hydrogen (h+) ions

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acidic

contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions
less than 7

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basic

alkaline
contains fewer hydrogen ions than hydroxyl atoms
ph above 7

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ph

values of importance

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2.0

gastric juices (very acidic)

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7.4 blood

almost neutral.

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how does stomach not burn up

secrets mucus (base)
if not ulcer

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what happens if ph of blood gets too low

things passing through dissolved

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what happens if ph changes

affects metabolism and homeostasis

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inorganic

molecules that lack carbon

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why are inorganic molecules called electrolytes

dissolve in water

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4 common inorganic substances

water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic salts

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water

most abundant compound in body

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makes up 2/3 of the body's weight

water

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water is a major component of

blood layers

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how are chemicals transported within the body

water

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water absorbs

and transports nutrients