Chapter 2: Physiology and Hemodynamics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Physiology and Hemodynamics Deck (109)
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1

each heart beat pumps about _____mLs of blood into the aorta

70

2

Cardiac Contraction stages:

pressure in lt ventricle rises
lt ventricle pressure exceeds aortic pressure
aortic valve opens
blood is ejected
BP rises

3

Increased heart rate delivers _____ blood volume

increased

4

The heart pump:

generates pressure to move the blood
results in pressure wave (energy wave) that travels through the system

5

blood flow through system

lt ventricle
aorta
large arteries
arterioles
capillaries
venules
large veins
vena cava
rt atrium

6

the pumping action of the heart results in

high volume of blood in arteries to maintain high pressure gradient between arteries and veins

7

cardiac output governs

the amount of blood that enters the arterial system

8

what determines the amount of blood that leaves the arterial system

arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance

9

pressure is greatest at

the heart
gradually decreases as blood moves further away
this pressure difference is necessary to maintain blood flood

10

movement of any fluid between two points requires two things:

a pathway along which the fluid can move
difference in energy levels (pressure difference/energy gradient)

11

the amount of flow depends on

energy difference
resistance opposing movement

12

lower resistance = _____ flow rate

higher

13

Higher resistance = ____ flow rate

lower

14

the total energy contained in moving fluid is the sum of

pressure (potential), kinetic and gravitational energy

15

Pressure

potential/stored energy
major form of energy for circulation of blood

16

pressure is expressed in

mmHg

17

Kinetic energy

velocity
small for circulating blood

18

kinetic energy is expressed in

fluid density and velocity measurements

19

gravitational energy

equivalent to weight of column of blood extending from the heart to the level where pressure is measured
hydrostatic pressure (HP)

20

supine patient hydrostatic pressure

arteries and veins are at the same level as the heart
0mmHg against arteries and veins at ankle

21

standing patient hydrostatic pressure

at ankle pressure is about 100mmHg

22

a _____ is needed to move blood from one point to another

energy gradient

23

the greater the energy gradient the ____ the flow

greater

24

Inertia

tendency of fluid to resist chanegs in its velocity

25

as blood moves farther out to the periphery

energy is dissipated in the form of heat

26

energy is continually restored by the

pumping action of the heart

27

movement of fluid is dependent upon

physical properties of the fluid and
what is moving through

28

Resistance = 8 nl/r4pi

R= resistance
n= viscosity of blood
l= length of the blood vessel
r^4= radius of blood vessel

29

Resistance is directly proportional to

viscosity and length

30

Resistance is inversely proportional to

radius of blood vessel