Flashcards in Chapter 2 Reasearch Methods Deck (28)
What are the seven steps in the psychological research method?
1 identification of research problem
2 formulation of a hypothesis
3 designing a method
4 data collection
5 analysing the data
6 interpreting the data
7 reporting research findings
Go in to detail with step one "Identification of a research problem"
This is to identify the topic of interest
Go in to detail about step two "Formulation of a hypothesis"
Make the educated guess/ prediction about the experiment. Do this before you do the testings. Make it a written staten not a idea.
Go in to detail about step three "designing a method"
How is the hypothesis being tested, which type of test will be used, which participants will be used, what responses are expected
Go in to detail about step four "data collection"
There are six types of tests
Direct observation- watching and recoding behaviour as it happens.
Questionnaire- a set of written questions designed to obtain information about the participant.
Interview- a face to face meeting to obtain information about a participant.
Recording psychological responses- using instruments to detect or monitor specific psychological responses.
Examining archival files- using past experimentations to gain results, or census records.
Psychological test- using scientifically developed tests to measure characteristics.
Go in to detail about step five "analysing the data"
Once the data has been collected, it must be summarised, organised, and represented in an logical way by the use of table, graphs or charts.
Go in to detail about step six "Interpreting the data"
Once analysed the data must be interpreted and explained, this includes forming a conclusion (a judgement about the results) when doing this include speak of the hypothesis
Go in to detail about step seven "Reporting research findings"
A scientific journal should be created so the experiment can be recreated, this does not only help the psychologist, but the general public can benefit.
What is a IV or independent variable
The variable in the experiment which the research manipulates in order to assess its affection participants responses using the DV
What is the DV or dependent variable
The variable that the researcher measures in order to assess the effects of the IV
What is the EV or extraneous variable
It is the other variable apart from the IV that can effect the experiment. It makes a difficulty to find the right results, so the experimenter should try to eliminate the EV. The EV comes in two types, Participant variable, and the Experimenter variable.
What is the Participant variable (EV)
The individual flaws in the certain experiment
What is the Experimenter variable (EV)
Ways in which the experimenter presents may change the variable
What is a experimental and a control group
The experimental group has the independent variable, while the control group doesn't.
What is a sample
A sample is a small group of participants shown in a numerical format
What is a population
A population is. Group of people with specific common qualities or aspects
Example: students in VCE psychology at Braemar college (unisex)
What is random allocation and random sampling?
Random allocation is where people are randomly split in to two groups, control and experimental.
Random selection is where any person is selected randomly from the population
What are some advantages to case studies?
Control over IV
Conditions are known
Replication can be done easily.
Valuable source of evidence.
What are some limitations of case studies?
Made in lab (it is artificial) this may become a extraneous variable.
Not like real life.
If the participants know the test results or have heard of the study, they may change how they do the tastings
A lot of data hard to analyse
Can not be done on large amounts of people.
What is a observational study?
Studying behaviour as it occurs
What is a naturalistic study?
A study done when the participant in unaware that you are testing them, this will be when they are in their natural environment.
What is non participant observation?
The same a Naturalistic studies but can be in a artificial environment
How can you control observer bias?
By letting another person who does not know anything about the study act as the researcher,
Or have a special training on how to avoid this.
What is a self report study
A type of study or questionnaire that participants answer without researcher interference.
What are Interviews
A series of questions to determine a specific answer
What is the rating scale
A set of categories designed to elicit information about attributes. This scale can go from 1-10 or other types.
What is a longitude and cross sectional study
A cross sectional study is a large amount of people studied at one point of time.
A longitudinal study is a study on a large amount of time, often meany decades.