Chapter 2: Stages of injury and muscle spasm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Stages of injury and muscle spasm Deck (60):

It is a techniques that make up the classical manipulations used by a massage therapist. Through practice and conscious application, mastery of these soft tissue techniques "not only gives the therapist the tools to manipulate the soft tissue, it also facilitates the development and improvement of palpation skills so essential to the massage therapist"

Swedish massage


What are the components of Swedish techniques ?

  • Direction of movement
  • Pressure
  • Rhythm of movement
  • Rate of movement
  • Duration of a technique
  • Part of the therapist's hand or arm that is used


What is the pressure applied for relaxation using Swedish Technique?

light to moderate pressure


______________ - is used to reach deeper structures and for the treatment of adhesions.

Deeper pressure


With the use of swedish technique. What is the direction applied for relaxation or reduction of edema?

the direction is centripetal (towards the heart) or in the direction of blood flow and, when possible, parallel with the muscle fibre direction.


Rate of Movement in Swedish Technique: True or False

1. For relaxation, the rate of movement is slower and can be matched to the rate of respiration of the client.

2. For a stimulating effect, techniques are applied more quickly.



What is the duration of Swedish Technique?

Duration of one technique is depends on the following: size of the area massaged pathological condition the client's tolerance


This are part of the therapist's hand or arm that is used in swedish technique. Except:

a. elbow

b. thumb

c. Dorsum of the hand

d. full surface of the palm

Except: c


To achieve a relaxing effect swedish technique should be applied:

Generally, any technique applied in a slow, rhythmical and repetitive manner.


To achieve a stimulating effect swedish technique should be applied:

applied with briskness, in more erratic and less predictable patterns.


_________ - is among the lightest techniques used for massage.



What are the uses of stroking?

  • used as an introductory or closing technique
  • used at the end of the massage
  • Temperature differences can be palpated with stroking


True statement on How to Perform Stroking. Except:

1. The palmar surface of the hand is only used; pressure is applied equally through the entire surface of the hand or fingers (Basmajian, 1985).

2. The technique is applied superficially. The tissue is not compressed and only the minimum amount of pressure is used to make contact with the tissue.

3. The direction of stroking can be centripetal or centrifugal because the technique is so superficial.

4. Stroking may be performed using long or short movements.

Except: 1.

Correct: The palmar surface of the hand or the fingers is used.


What is the contraindication of Stroking?

Stroking is not used over uncovered open or contagious skin lesions.


What are the effects of stroking?

  • decreases sympathetic nervous system firing and reduces pain perception
  • It tends to have a reflexive effect on the circulatory system because of the lightness of the pressure.


________ - is from the French word "effleurer", to glide, stroke or touch lightly (Basmajian,1985).



What are the uses of Effleurage?

a.use to spread lubricant

b. It can introduce the client to the therapist's touch.

c. Palpation of temperature, muscle tone and texture

d. prepares the tissue for deeper techniques

e used as a transition stroke from one

f. technique to another

g.applied at the end of the massage


_________ - is from the French "petrir" meaning to knead.



What are the uses of Petrissage?

1. used after the tissue is warmed up

2. Petrissage makes up a key group of techniques used in treatment.

3. techniques are applied to muscle groups, individual muscles or some part of a muscle


__________ - or oscillations to the tissue, are probably one of the most difficult techniques to master; they require ongoing practise.



What are the uses of Vibrations?

Vibrations are used at any time during the massage. No lubricant is necessary when performing vibrations.


___________ - is from the French "tapoter" meaning to rap, drum or pat.



____________ - The hands are light and springy, with the wrists relaxed; the technique is applied superficially with no force created beneath the skin.

Light Tapotement


___________ : The tissue is gently plucked between the thumb and fingertips.



_________ : The tissue is tapped with the fingertips.



___________ - The hands are firm, with the wrists relaxed; a deeper force is used that carries below the skin surface.

Heavy Tapotement


__________ : This is performed with the ulnar border of the hand. For less force the hand is relaxed; for greater force the hand is stiff.



______________ : The hand is held in a cupped position, with the fingers and thumb together; with the wrist pronated,the tissue is struck with alternating hands. When done properly, there is an audible "clopping" noise.

Clapping or Cupping


_________ : The hand is held in a loose fist. can be performed using the extensor surface of the phalanges of the digits or the ulnar surface of the fist.



Indicated techniques in acute injury except:

a. Stimulate plexus –strokings, vibes

b. Petrissage

c. Effleurage

d. Diaphragmatic

e. Swelling technique

f. breathing

Except: e


What are the techniques that cannot be used in subacute stage of injury?

  • Frictions
  • Swelling technique ( unaffected area)
  • Lymph pump  
  • Golgi Tendon Organ


What are the techniques that cannot be used in chronic stage of injury?

  • Frictions
  • Swelling technique ( affected and unaffected area)
  • Lymph pump 
  • GTO
  • Lymph pump


__________ - is the reaction of vascularized tissue to local injury. This process is a beneficial one that allows a person to live with the effects of everyday stress.



Causes of inflammation. True or False:

a. It is commonly a result of the immune system to micro-organisms.

b. trauma, surgery, chemicals, extreme temperatures.



What are the stages of injury?





____________ - this is the short-term response to injury. Will last approximately 1-5 days depending on the severity of the injury.

Acute stage of injury


Signs and symptoms of acute inflammation. Except:

a. Pain

b. Redness

c. Swelling

d. An increase in muscle weakness

e. Muscle spasm may also be present (protective muscle spasm)

Except: d


This is considered the last stage of injury. Healing of the injury is due to the severity of the injury and if the client was being treated throughout the healing process.

Chronic stage of injury


How long is the chronic stage of injury?

It can last from 14 days and until the injury has completely healed


This is the second stage of injury. It can last 4-5 days, up to 14 days, after injury. This stage is also divided into three parts (early , mid and late).

Sub-acute stage of injury


Signs and symptoms of Subacute stage of injury. Except:

a. There is usually formation of granulation tissue

b. Fragile tissue which is easily damaged

c. Decrease function of injured area

d. There is usually a decrease in the pain perception

e. A decrease in swelling and inflammation

f. An increase in muscle weakness and Decrease in ROM (due to adhesion formation)

Except: c


What are the signs and symptoms of Chronic stage of injury?

  • Edema may or may not be present (note chronic inflammation)
  • Decrease ROM
  • Decrease function of injured area
  • Pain may, or may not, be present
  • Muscle weakness
  • Coolness of affected area may, or may not, be present


Focus of treatment in acute stage includes the following. Except:

a. Decrease pain

b. Control spasm

c. Maintain ROM of affected and unaffected joints

d. Control loss of function

e. Increase relaxation

f. Prevent Elevation and the use of Ice compress

Except: f


What are the actual treatment for acute stage?

  • Positioning and pillowing to decrease pain and swelling
  • if swelling is  present Contrast hydrotherapy to affected area
  • Can work on-site (can release trigger points that refer into injured area)


Focus of treatment for chronic stages: True or False

1. Apply RICE (rest/ice/compression/elevation)



What are the actual treatment for chronic stage of injury?

  • Positioning and pillowing to treat effectively
  • Hot hydrotherapy to affected area
  • Can work on-site using all advanced techniques


A convulsive involuntary contraction of an entire muscle. It is usually secondary to an injury or irritation of the muscle itself, or irritation of some nearby structure.This is called:

Muscle spasm


___________ - Symptomatic of nerve irritation by pressure or increased excitability, in a motor nerve. It results from temporary nerve compression. Defined as involuntary muscular contraction with pain .



Difference between a spasm and cramp. True or False:

Cramp is symptomatic of nerve irritation by pressure, or increased excitability in a motor nerve.

Spasm is secondary to injury or irritation of the muscle itself, or of some nearby structure.



What is the common cause of muscle spasm?

Direct trauma


A muscle spasm can be determined by:

onset observation palpation stretch strength testing


What is the treatment for muscle spasm?

Treatment can be origin and insertion, GTO, PNF, or active stretching using reciprocal inhibition.


___________ - Spasm presenting as a sustained contraction. e.g. Charlie horse

Tonic spasm


____________ - Spasm presenting as an alternating contraction and relaxation. e.g. hiccups/twitch

Clonic spasm


A muscle spasm occurring, in response to a painful stimulus which functionally splints the muscle. It prevents further movement when an area has been already damaged. Also known as reflex muscle guarding.

Protective/reflexive spasm


________________ - Muscle spasm occurring in response to local circulatory changes or nutrient deficiency, including alternations in blood levels of calcium and vitamin D.

Intrinsic muscle spasm


What are the causes of spasm?


2.Overuse, fatigue, chilling of muscle, vascular damage, edema or any other sources of circulatory stasis 3.Increased demands on the muscle in excess of nutritional supply

4.Anxiety, emotional tension, temperature change, injury to nearby tissue or joint dysfunction

5.Electrolyte imbalances, hypocalcemia

6.Poor posture


On palpation spasm is:

a. Tender on palpation

b. unaffected muscle may be cool due to ischemia or hot due to congestion

c. A muscle with chronically increased tone will have texture (soft and fibrous)

d. Increased tone in affected mm and often in the agonist, and other compensating structures



In signs and symptoms of spasm there is an increase in muscle strength and length and decrease in ROM of joints, crossed by the affected muscle. True or False:


In Spasm there is a decrease of muscle strength and length.


What are the other signs and symptoms of spasm?

  • Pain
  • Referral pain
  • May have circulatory restrictions (affected tissue is hot or cold)
  • Excessive increase in tone of affected muscle