Flashcards in Chapter 2 - The Nature of Molecules Deck (28):
Smallest element of a substance that retains the characters of the substance.
Groups of atoms, held by bonds
Negatively charged particles. Equals the number of protons in atoms.
Positively charged particles in the center of an atom. Equals the number of protons in atoms.
(Determines the atomic number.)
Neutral particles in the atom's nucleus.
(With the protons, determines the atomic weight/mass.)
Charged atoms, that have gained or lost one or more electrons.
(Cations - positively charged, lost electron(s)
Anions - negatively charged, gained electron(s))
Amount of a substance, a universal constant, independent of gravitational pull (weight)
Discovered the fixed ratio of elements in substances (with the aid of electrolysis), such as H2O, CO2, etc.
(Worked with elements vs. compounds - a chemist, not an alchemist)
Atoms of the same elements that have different atomic masses due to differing numbers of neutrons.
Loss of an electron
(Transferred to another atom while still retaining the energy level in the atom)
Gain of an electron
Formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions
Formed when ions share 2 or more valence electrons
(Strength depends on the number of electron pairs shared by the atoms)
Weak attractions between the partially negative oxygen of one water molecule and the partially positive hydrogen of a different water molecule.
(Most important property of water.)
1 pair (2 electrons) shared between atoms in a covalent bond
2 pairs (4 electrons) shared between atoms in a covalent bond
In covalent bonds, an unequal sharing of electrons
In covalent bonds, an equal sharing of electrons
(Water causes hydrophobic molecules aggregate or assume specific shapes.)
The center of an atom, with protons and neutrons
Areas where electrons are found. Only 2 electrons per orbital. Those furthest from the nucleus have the greatest energy.
Count of protons in an atom
Sum of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom.
A measure of the amount of H+ ions in a substance
Lower than 7 on the pH scale (greater concentration of H+ ions)