Chapter 6 - Energy and Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Energy and Metabolism Deck (13):
1

oxidation

* loss of electrons
* results in positive charge

2

reduction

* gain of electrons
* results in negative charge

3

catabolism

chemical reactions that harvest energy when bonds are broken

4

anabolism

chemical reactions that expend energy to make new chemical bonds

5

metabolism

all chemical reactions occurring in an organism

6

ATP (definition, function, and structure)

* adenosine triphosphate
* the energy “currency” of cells
* portable and on-demand source of energy for endergonic reactions
* ATP structure:
-ribose, a 5-carbon sugar
-adenine
-three phosphates

7

potential energy

* Stored energy
* Molecular bonds store energy

8

kinetic energy

* Energy of motion

9

the most common electron acceptor in biological systems

oxygen

10

redox reactions

* oxidation-reduction reactions always take place together because every electron that is lost by one atom is gained by another.
* plays a key role in flow of energy through biological systems

11

enzyme

* globular protein with one or more active sites ("pockets")
* determines the course of metabolism by facilitating particular chemical reactions

12

substrate

* a molecule that binds to a protein and on which the protein acts

13

how an enzyme performs catalysis

* a substrate binds to the protein's active site
* amino acid side groups that are close to key bonds in the substrate interact with the substrate, stressing or distorting a particular bond
* stressed bonds lower the activation energy needed to break the bond
* when bonds have been broken, or new ones formed, the substrate has been converted into its product