Unit #3: Chapters 10-16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit #3: Chapters 10-16 Deck (143):
1

cytokinesis

* cleavage of the cell into equal halves
-in animal cells – constriction of actin filaments produces a cleavage furrow
-in plant cells – plasma membrane forms a cell plate between the nuclei (then cellulose laid down for cell walls, with pectin between for the middle lamella)
-in fungi and some protists – mitosis occurs within the nucleus; division of the nucleus occurs with cytokinesis

2

cell plate

* membrane wall that forms down middle of cell after mitosis in plant cells
* vesicles with membrane components fuse to each other and the cell wall

3

gamete

- egg cells and sperm cells
- contain half the number of chromosomes of an adult body cell
- produced from the process of meiosis
- haploid cells

4

fertilization

- the fusion of two gametes
- produces a diploid zygote

5

mitosis

* Chromosome division: spindle apparatus assembles, binds to the chromosomes and pulls the sister chromatids apart
* Mitosis is divided into 5 phases:
1. prophase
2. prometaphase
3. metaphase
4. anaphase
5. telophase

6

meiosis

*Meiosis involves two successive cell divisions with no replication of genetic material between them. This results in a reduction of the chromosome number from diploid to haploid.
* Meiosis is characterized by 4 features:
1. Synapsis and crossing over
2. Sister chromatids remain joined at their centromeres throughout meiosis I
3. Kinetochores of sister chromatids attach to the same pole in meiosis I
4. DNA replication is suppressed between meiosis I and meiosis II.
* Meiosis produces haploid cells that are not identical to each other.
* Genetic differences in these cells arise from:
-crossing over
-random alignment of homologues in metaphase I (independent assortment)

(vs. Mitosis which produces 2 cells identical to each other.)

7

recombination

Genetic cross-over between non-sister chromatids

8

synapsis

homologous chromosomes (homologues) become closely associated with each other

9

haploid

containing only 1 set of chromosomes

10

diploid

containing 2 sets of chromosomes

11

zygote

- diploid cell
- produced by sexual reproduction (by fertilization-the fusion of gametes)

12

prophase

* Step 1 of mitosis
-chromosomes continue to condense
-centrioles move to each pole of the cell (in animal cells)
-spindle apparatus is assembled at centrosomes at poles
-nuclear envelope dissolves

13

metaphase

* Step 3 of mitosis
-microtubules pull the chromosomes to align them at the center of the cell
(metaphase plate: imaginary plane through the center of the cell where the chromosomes align)
- mostly a transitional stage in which all the preparations are checked before anaphase

14

anaphase

* Step 4 of mitosis
-removal of cohesin proteins causes the centromeres to separate
-microtubules pull sister chromatids toward the poles (microtubules are gradually disassembled and therefore shortened)
-shortest phase (and irreversible)
-in anaphase A the kinetochores are pulled towards the poles
-in anaphase B the poles move apart (the cell becomes visibly elongated)

15

telophase

* Step 5 of mitosis
-spindle apparatus disassembles
-nuclear envelope forms around each set of sister chromatids
-chromosomes begin to uncoil (which permits gene expression)
-nucleolus reappears in each new nucleus

16

meiosis I

* Meiosis includes two rounds of division – meiosis I and meiosis II.
* During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes (homologues) become closely associated with each other. (This is synapsis.)
* Proteins between the homologues hold them in a synaptonemal complex.
* Physical exchange of regions of the chromatids
* The homologues are separated from each other in anaphase I.

17

independent assortment

In meiosis, metaphase I, homologues are arranged randomly with respect to which pair faces which pole (sometimes the maternal pair, sometimes the paternal pair).

18

chromosome

* composed of chromatin (most chromosomes are about 40% DNA and 60% protein)
* every species has a different #
* compacted into soleniods in the nucleus
* must be replicated before cell division

19

tetrad

Term for the synaptonemal complex - homologues paired closely along a lattice of proteins between them

20

homozygous

having 2 of the same allele (gene from both parents is the same type: both brown eyes, purple flowers, etc.)

21

heterozygous

having 2 different alleles (gene from one parent is blue eyes, from other is brown eyes; or purple flower from one parent and white flowers from the other parent)

22

dominant

the form of each trait expressed in the F1 generation (offspring resulting from a cross of true-breeding parents)

23

recessive

the form of the trait not seen in the F1 generation (offspring resulting from a cross of true-breeding parents)

24

codominant

the heterozygote shows some aspect of the phenotypes of both homozygotes.

25

incomplete dominance

the heterozygote is intermediate in phenotype between the 2 homozygotes

26

genotype

total set of alleles of an individual
PP = homozygous dominant
Pp = heterozygous
pp = homozygous recessive

27

phenotype

outward appearance of an individual

28

barr body

Inactive, condensed X chromosome in females

29

spliceosome

* Organelle that performs pre-mRNA splicing to remove non-coding (intron) sequences from the primary RNA transcript to produce the mature mRNA.
* Made of clusters of snRNP, which are snRNA and proteins.

30

ribosome

-

31

Rh factor

-1077

32

epistatic

Gene interaction where one gene can interfere with the expression of another.

33

3:1 ratio

dominant to recessive ratio in the F2 generation (Mendel discovered is actually 1:2:1 - 1 true-breeding dominant plant:2 non-true-breeding dominant plants:1 true-breeding recessive plant)

34

9:3:3:1 ratio

* the result of didybrid crosses

35

gene

information for a trait passed from parent to offspring (coded in the DNA chromosomes from each parent)

36

allele

alternate forms of a gene (such as blue eyes vs. brown eyes, purple flowers vs. white flowers

37

test cross

a cross used to determine the genotype of an individual with dominant phenotype
-cross the individual with unknown genotype (e.g. P_) with a homozygous recessive (pp)
-the phenotypic ratios among offspring are different, depending on the genotype of the unknown parent

38

monohybrid cross

* a cross to study only 2 variations of a single trait (has only 2 possible variations)
* all F1 generation resembled only 1 parent with the dominant variation (no offspring with characteristics intermediate between the 2 parents were produced)
* results in a 3:1 (1:2:1) dominant:recessive ration

39

dihybrid cross

* examination of 2 separate traits in a single cross
* The F1 generation of a dihybrid cross (RrYy) shows only the dominant phenotypes for each trait
* results in a 9:3:3:1 dominant:recessive ration

40

true breeding

always result in the same traits from generation to generation

41

multiple alleles

more than 2 options of a particular gene (such as variable heights, multiple hair colors, etc.)

42

pleiotrophic

an allele which has more than one effect on the phenotype (such as multiple symptoms for a disease)

43

sex (X) linkage

a trait determined by a gene on the X chromosome. associated with the sex of the individual.

44

autosome

Non-sex chromosomes (22 pairs in humans)

45

sex chromosome

chromosomes which determine gender, such as X and Y in humans

46

nondisjunction

The failure of homologues or sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis

47

trisomy

having an extra copy of a chromosome

48

Turner syndrome

nondisjunction that results in X gamete with a O gamete (no sex chromosome) resulting in an XO zygote individual. Phenotypes are a sterile, short female with webbed neck and low-normal mental capacity.

49

Kleinfelter's syndrome

nondisjunction that results in XX gamete joining with a Y gamete resulting in an XXY zygote individual. Phenotypes are a male individual with some female body characters and reduced mental capacity

50

Down syndrome

trisomy of chromosome 21

51

ABO blood types

The human ABO blood group system demonstrates:
-multiple alleles: there are 3 alleles of the I gene (IA, IB, and i)
-codominance: IA and IB are dominant to i but codominant to each other

52

sickle cell anemia

mutation of the protein hemoglobin, that leads to impaired oxygen delivery to tissues. confers greater resistance to malaria. recessive.

53

hemophilia

affects a protein involved in the chain of proteins that form blood clots. a hemophiliac can bleed to death from small cuts. x-linked recessive allele.

54

continuous variation

Traits that are not "one or the other", but can be expressed in many variations (human height)

55

multiple genes

* Polygenic inheritance occurs when multiple genes are involved in controlling the phenotype of a trait.
* The phenotype is an accumulation of contributions by multiple genes.
* These traits show continuous variation and are referred to as quantitative traits.
* For example – human height

56

DNA

* deoxyribose nucleic acid
* a nucleic acid chain of nucleotides (including thymine instead of uracil)

57

RNA

* ribose nucleic acid
* a nucleic acid chain of nucleotides (including uracil but not thymine)

58

nucleotides

* subunit of DNA and RNA
* 3 components:
- 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)
- a phosphate group
- a nitrogenous base (a purine (A or G) or a pyrimidine (T, C, or U (RNA only)))

59

antiparallel

DNA strands put together with opposing polar ends (5'-3' to 3'-5')

60

hydrogen bonds

Hold the two strands of DNA together by the bases on opposite strands.
(A-T has 2 H bonds; G-C has 3 H bonds)

61

phosphodiester bond

A pair of ester bonds that use the phosphate group of nucleotides to link them together.

62

semiconservative

Model of DNA most consistent with observations regarding chromosome replication. The chromosome strand splits into 2 strands, each of which are replicated by DNA polymerase.

63

DNA ligase

Enzyme that forms the last phosphodiester bond between Okazaki fragments in DNA strand replication.

64

DNA polymerase

Enzyme responsible for matching the existing DNA bases on the template strand with complementary nucleotides and then linking the nucleotides together to make a new strand.

65

RNA polymerase

Make the DNA primer (see DNA primase)

66

DNA primase

An RNA polymerase enzyme that synthesizes short stretches of RNA on a DNA strand to function as primers for the DNA polymerase.

67

transformation

When genetic information is transferred between cells.

68

Frederick Griffith

Performed experiments on mice to inject them with strains of pneumonia. Discovered transformation. Led to discovery that DNA holds the genetic material (not proteins).

69

bacteriophage

Viruses that infect bacteria.

70

Hershey Chase

Two scientists who studied the question of proteins vs. DNA that contained genetic material. Used radioactive material on phages (viruses) to "flag" proteins and DNA to determine which were getting injected into bacteria, and therefore transferring genetic material.

71

DNA gyrase

Enzyme that acts to relieve the torsional strain (resulting in supercoiling) caused by unwinding DNA.

72

Chargaff's rule

1. Proportion of Adenine always equals that of Thymine, and Guanine to Cytosine
2. Proportion of A-T to G-C varies by species

73

Rosalind Franklin

Obtained X-ray "pictures" of DNA fibers. Clearest confirmed that DNA was a helix and allowed calculation of the molecule (2 nm across with a complete helical turn every 3.4 nm).

74

Okazaki fragments

DNA fragments synthesized discontinuously on the lagging strand.

75

leading strand

The strand of DNA starting with the 3' end which can be replicated continuously (building the 5' to 3' sister strand).

76

lagging strand

The strand of DNA starting with the 5' end which must be replicated in sections (building the opposite 5' to 3' strand backwards as the strands are "unzipped").

77

discontinuous replication

In DNA replication, each parent strand is duplicated from the 3' end to the 5' end, but the strands are assembled antiparallel (opposing ends). So when the DNA molecule is split into two strands to be duplicated, the strand that starts with the 5' end (lagging strand) must be replicated in sections, starting from where the strands still meet, to where the last section started.

78

continuous replication

In DNA replication, each parent strand is duplicated from the 3' end to the 5' end, but the strands are assembled antiparallel (opposing ends). So when the DNA molecule is split into two strands to be duplicated, the strand that starts with the 3' end (leading strand) can be replicated continuously.

79

5' end

* DNA and RNA nucleotides are attached by phosphodiester bonds at the 5' carbon to the 3' hydroxyl group of the next unit. The "head" of the DNA strand has nothing attached to its phosphate group. (Contributes to polarity of the molecule.)

80

3' end

* DNA and RNA nucleotides are attached by phosphodiester bonds at the 5' carbon to the 3' hydroxyl group of the next unit. The "base" of the DNA strand has nothing attached to its hydroxyl group. (Contributes to polarity of the molecule.)

81

Watson & Crick

Determined the 3-D structure of DNA based on current evidence available (no testing of their own)

82

mRNA

Messenger RNA
* Contains the transcribed DNA for translation to amino acids.

83

tRNA (function)

Transfer RNA
* The intermediary protein between mRNA and amino acids.
* Interprets information in the mRNA
* Helps position the amino acids on the ribosome.

84

rRNA

Ribosomal RNA
* Critical to the functioning of the ribosome.
* To function, it must be able to bind to at least two charged tRNAs at once so that a peptide bond can be formed between their amino acids.

85

transcription

Produces a complementary copy of the DNA template strand (except T (thymine) is substituted with U (uracil)).

Prokaryotes:
Performed by the enzyme RNA polymerase simultaneously with translation.

Eukaryotes:
Performed by the enzyme RNA polymerase II in the nucleus.

86

translation

One of the most complex and energy-intensive functions that cells perform.

87

ribosome

The key organelle in translation, using mRNA and tRNA.

88

P site

Binding site on a bacterial ribosome
* Binds to the tRNA attached to the growing peptide chain.

89

A site

Binding site on a bacterial ribosome
* Binds to the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added.

90

E site

Binding site on a bacterial ribosome
* Binds the tRNA that carried the previous amino acid added.

91

codon

The basic unit of the genetic code; a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in DNA or mRNA that codes for one amino acid.
* Each codon maps to exactly one amino acid. (There can be multiple codons that map to the same amino acid, but no amino acid maps to more than one codon.)

92

anticodon

The 3-nucleotide sequence at the end of a tRNA molecule that is complimentary to, and base-pairs with, an amino-acid-specifying codon in mRNA.

93

stop codon

Signals the end of a genetic code. Can be 1 of 3 different codon sequences: UAA, UGA, and UAG.

94

translocation

Third step in the elongation cycle of RNA translation. tRNA in the A site now has the peptide chain. As the mRNA is shifted to the next codon through the ribosome, the tRNA in the A site moves to the P site. The tRNA in the P site moves to the E site.

95

intron

"Interventng sequences"
* noncoding DNA that interrupts the sequence of the gene.

96

exon

The coding sequences that are expressed.

97

nucleus

Site of gene transcription.

98

cytoplasm

Site of gene translation.

99

S phase

* 2nd phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle
* synthesis of DNA (DNA replication) (irreversible stage)
- 2 sister chromatids are produced
* Following S phase, the sister chromatids appear to share a centromere, are held together by cohesin proteins, but are extended and uncoiled
- Proteins of the kinetochore are attached to the centromere.

100

central dogma

Information passes in one direction from the gene (DNA) to an RNA copy of the gene, and the RNA copy directs the sequential assembly of a chain of amino acids into a protein.

101

cDNA

-335

102

palindrome

-328

103

PCR

-p 332

104

Lac-Z

Gene in the lac operon for beta galactosidase production

105

beta galactosidase

Enzyme that digests lactose into simple sugars glucose and galactose.

106

insulin

-p 45, 954?

107

Ti Plasmid

-p 332

108

DNA fingerprinting

-p 336

109

transposon

-p 358

110

pseudogenes

-p 357

111

shotgun sequencing

-p 354

112

operator

Regulatory sites on DNA to control gene expression. Act as a roadblock to prevent the polymerase from initiating effectively.

113

repressor

Proteins that mediate negative control of gene expression.
* Bind to regulatory sites on DNA (operators).
* Respond to specific effector molecules.

114

promoter

* A short sequence found upstream of the start site and is therefore not transcribed by the polymerase.
* Forms a recognition and binding site for the RNA polymerase.
* In bacteria, two 6-base sequences are common: one at position -35 upstream and the other at -10. (Provides the site of initiation as well as the direction of transcription.)

115

operon

The grouping of functionally related genes.
(Prokaryotic genes are often organized such that genes encoding related functions are clustered together.

116

helix-turn-helix

The most common DNA-binding motif.
* Protein has 2 alpha-helical segments linked by a short, nonhelical segment (the "turn"). Each segment is held at right angles to each other. One holds the other (the recognition helix) in place.

117

zinc finger

DNA-binding motif.
* A zinc atom links an alpha-helical segment to a beta-sheet segment so the helical segment fits into the major groove.

118

leucine zipper

DNA-binding motif.
* Subunits held together by leucines (amino acids) which holds their helical regions in a Y shape in the major groove (like a pair of tongs).

119

GTP

Binds to the 5' end of mRNA during transcription as a "5' cap". (Modified by the addition of a methyl group. The cap protects the 5' end of the mRNA from degradation and participates in translation initiation.)

120

chromatin

* Composes chromosomes
* a complex of DNA and proteins

121

heterochromatin

unexpressed regions of chromatin

122

euchromatin

expressed regions of chromatin

123

chromatid

* a single strand of DNA
* sister chromatids: 2 copies of the chromosome within the replicated chromosome

124

somatic cells

* Adult body cells
* diploid

125

cell cycle

* The eukaryotic cell cycle has 5 main phases:
1. G1 (gap phase 1)
2. S (synthesis) (irreversable stage)
3. G2 (gap phase 2)
(G1, S, and G2 are interphase)
4. M (mitosis) (anaphase is an irreversible stage)
5. C (cytokinesis)
* The length of a complete cell cycle varies greatly among cell types.
* The cell cycle is controlled at three checkpoints:
1. G1/S checkpoint
-the cell “decides” to divide
2. G2/M checkpoint
-the cell makes a commitment to mitosis
3. late metaphase (spindle) checkpoint
-the cell ensures that all chromosomes are attached to the spindle

126

G1

* gap phase 1
* time of cell growth between cytokinesis and DNA replication
* cell undergos the majority of its growth - synthesizing proteins and creating organelles
* the longest phase

127

G2

* gap phase 2
* fills the "gap" between DNA synthesis and mitosis
* some cell growth: synthesis of proteins and organelle development
* chromosomes undergo condensation, becoming tightly coiled.
* microtubles reorganize and begin to form spindles ( In animal cells, centrioles replicate and one centriole moves to each pole.)

128

G0

* the state a cell can be in between G1 and S; a resting state

129

binary fission

-the single, circular bacterial chromosome is replicated
-replication begins at the origin of replication and proceeds bidirectionally
-new chromosomes are partitioned to opposite ends of the cell
-a septum forms to divide the cell into 2 cells

130

cleavage furrow

* forms during cytokinesis
* in animal cells – constriction of actin filaments produces a cleavage furrow

131

aster

In animal cells, an arrangement of microtubules to the nearby plasma membrane from centrioles after they have separated and moved to the poles.

132

spindle

The structure composed of microtubules radiating from the poles of the dividing cell that will ultimately guide the sister chromatids to the two poles.

133

centriole

microtubule-organizing centers (animal cells only)

134

centromere

* region of attachment of chromatids (attachment by cohesin proteins)

135

interphase

* G1 (gap phase 1) – time of cell growth
* S phase – synthesis of DNA (DNA replication)
- 2 sister chromatids are produced
* G2 (gap phase 2) – chromosomes condense

136

prometaphase

* Step 2 of Mitosis
-chromosomes become attached to the spindle apparatus by their kinetochores
-a second set of microtubules is formed from the poles to each kinetochore
-microtubules begin to pull each chromosome toward the center of the cell

137

prophase I (of meiosis)

-chromosomes coil tighter
-nuclear envelope dissolves
-homologues become closely associated in synapsis
-crossing over occurs between non-sister chromatids

138

metaphase I (of meiosis)

-terminal chiasmata hold homologues together following crossing over
-microtubules from opposite poles attach to each homologue, not each sister chromatid
-homologues are aligned at the metaphase plate side-by-side
-the orientation of each pair of homologues on the spindle is random

139

anaphase I (of meiosis)

-microtubules of the spindle shorten
-homologues are separated from each other
-sister chromatids remain attached to each other at their centromeres

140

telophase I (of meiosis)

-nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes
-each new nucleus is now haploid
-sister chromatids are no longer identical because of crossing over

141

meiosis II (4 phases)

-prophase II: nuclear envelopes dissolve and spindle apparatus forms
-metaphase II: chromosomes align on metaphase plate
-anaphase II: sister chromatids are separated from each other
-telophase II: nuclear envelope re-forms; cytokinesis follows

142

homologous chromosomes

The maternal and paternal copies of the same chromosome (such as "number 16").

143

tRNA (description/structure)

* cloverleaf base structure that is folded into an "L" shape
* 3' acceptor end holds the amino acid
* Anticodon loop end binds (base-pair) to the mRNA codon.