Chapter 2 - The Neural Basis for Cognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - The Neural Basis for Cognition Deck (54)
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1

Amygdala

- almond-shaped structure in the limbic system
- plays a central role in emotion and in the evaluation of stimuli

2

Prefrontal cortex

- outer surface of the frontmost part of the brain
- crucial for the planning of complex or novel behaviours
- main site for brain's executive funcitons

3

Hindbrain

- sits atop the spinal cord
- includes several structures crucial for controlling key life functions

4

Cerebellum

- largest area of the hindbrain
- crucial for coordination of bodily movements and balance

5

Midbrain

- plays an important role in coordinating movements
- contains structures that serve as relay stations for information arriving from the sensory organs

6

Forebrain

- plays a crucial role in supporting intellectual functioning

7

Cortex

- outermost surface of an organ in the body
- psychologists are most commonly interested in the cerebral cortex

8

Convolutions

- wrinkles visible in the cerebral cortex
- allows surface area of the brain to fit into a small volume in the skull

9

Longitudinal fissure

- separation diving the left cerebral hemisphere from the right

10

Cerebral hemisphere

- left and right cerebral hemisphere
- constitute the major part of the forebrain in mammals

11

Frontal lobes

- lobe that includes the prefrontal area and the primary motor projection area

12

Central fissure

- separation dividing the frontal lobes from the parietal lobes

13

Parietal lobes

- lies between occipital and frontal lobes
- includes the primary sensory projection areas and circuits that are crucial for the control of attention

14

Lateral fissure

- separation dividing the frontal lobes from the temporal lobes

15

Temporal lobes

- lies inward and down from the temples
- includes the primary auditory projection area, Wernicke's area, amygdala, and hippocampus

16

Occipital lobes

- rearmost lobe
- includes the primary visual projection area

17

Subcortical structures

- pieces of the brain underneath the cortex
- includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and various components of the limbic system

18

Thalamus

- part of the lower portion of the forebrain
- major relay and integration center for sensory information

19

Hypothalamus

- small structure at the base of the forebrain
- plays a role in the control of motivated behaviours (eg. eating, drinking, sexual activity)

20

Limbic system

- includes amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of the thalamus
- involved in the control of emotional behaviour, motivation, learning, and memory

21

Hippocampus

- structure in the temporal lobe
- involved in the creation of long-term memories and spatial memories

22

Commisures

- thick bundle of fibre along which information is sent back and forth between the cerebral hemispheres

23

Corpus callosum

- largest of the commissures linking the left and right hemispheres

24

Lesion

- a specific area of tissue damage

25

CT scans

- computerized axial tomography
- uses X-rays to construct a 3D image

26

PET scans

- positron emission tomography
- determines how much glucose is being used by specific areas of the brain at a particular moment in time

27

MRI scans

- magnetic resonance imaging
- uses magnetic fields to construct a 3D representation of brain tissue
- more precise than CT scans

28

fMRI scans

- functional magnetic resonance imaging
- uses magnetic fields to construct a 3D representation of the activity levels in different areas of the brain at a particular moment in time

29

EEG

- electroencephalogram
- recording of voltage changes occuring at the scalp that reflect activity in the brain underneath

30

Event-related potentials

- changes in an EEG in the brief period just before, during, and after an explicitly defined event
- usually measured by averaging together many trials in which this event has occurred

31

Fusiform face area (FFA)

- a brain area apparently specialized for the perception of faces

32

TMS

- transcranial magnetic stimulation
- technique in which a series of strong magnetic pulses at a specific location on the scalp causes temporary disruption in the brain region directly underneath

33

Localization of function

- the research endeavor of determining what specific job is performed by a particular region of the brain

34

Primary motor projection areas

- located at the rear of the frontal lobe
- departure point for nerve cells that send signals to lower portions of the brain and spinal cord
- result in muscle movement

35

Primary sensory projection areas

- main points of arrival in the cortex for information arriving from the eyes, ears, and other sense organs

36

Contralateral control

- pattern in which the left half of the brain controls the right half of the body, and vice versa

37

Association cortex

- traditional name for the portion of the human cortex outside the motor and sensory projection areas

38

Apraxis

- disturbance in the capacity to initiative or organize voluntary action, often caused by brain damage

39

Agnosias

- disturbance in a person's ability to identify familiar objects

40

Neglect syndrome

- pattern of symptoms in which individuals ignore all inputs coming from one side of space

41

Aphasias

- disruption to language capacities, often caused by brain damage

42

Neurons

- an individual cell within the nervous system

43

Glia

- type of cell in the central nervous system
- functions = support of neurons, repair of neural connections, development of neural connections
- specialized glia provide electrical insulation for faster transmission of neural signals

44

Cell body

- area of biological cell containing the nucleus and metabolic machinery that sustains the cell

45

Dendrites

- part of the neuron that usually detects the incoming signal

46

Axon

- part of the neuron that typically transmits a signal away from the neuron's cell body and carries the signal to another location

47

Neurotransmitter

- one of the chemicals released by neurons to stimulate adjacent neurons

48

Synapse

- area that includes the presynaptic membrane of one neuron, the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron, and the gap between them
- presynaptic membrane releases a small amount of neurotransmitter that drifts across the gap and stimulates the postsynaptic membrane

49

Presynaptic membrane

- cell membrane of the neuron sending information across the synapse

50

Postsynaptic membrane

- cell membrane of the neuron receiving information across the synapse

51

Threshold

- activity level at which a cell or detector responds, or fires

52

Action potential

- brief change in the electrical potential of an axon
- physical basis of the signal sent from one end of a neuron to the other
- usually triggers a further chemical signal to other neurons

53

Myelin sheath

- layer of tissue formed by specialized glial cells
- provides insulation around the axons of many neurons
- gaps in the insulation allowing the neuronal signal to jump from one gap to the next
- increases speed of neurotransmission

54

All-or-none law

- a neuron or detector either fires completely or does not fire at all
- no intermediate responses are possible
- graded responses are possible based on frequency and timing