Chapter 2 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Honors Biology 1st Semester Exam > Chapter 2 Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocabulary Deck (43):
1

The basic unit of matter

Atom

2

The center of an atom

Nucleus

3

A negatively charged subatomic particle

Electron

4

A pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom

Element

5

Atoms of the same element with different amounts of neutrons

Isotopes

6

A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

Compound

7

What holds chemical compounds together

Chemical bonds

8

Formed when a metal bonds with a nonmetal

Ionic bond

9

Positively and negatively charged atoms

Ions

10

Forms when electrons are shared between atoms

Covalent bond

11

The smallest unit of most compounds

Molecule

12

Intermolecular attraction between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules

Van der Waals forces

13

An attraction between molecules of the same substance

Cohesion

14

An attraction between molecules of different substances

Adhesion

15

A material composed of two or more elements or compounds physically combined

Mixture

16

A homogeneous mixture where all particles of the solute are dissolved in the solvent

Solution

17

The substance being dissolved

Solute

18

The substance doing the dissolving

Solvent

19

A heterogeneous mixture that will settle over time

Suspension

20

The scale used to determine the concentration of H+ ions in a solution

pH scale

21

A compound that forms H+ ions in solution

Acid

22

A compound that produces OH- ions in solution

Base

23

Weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids and bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH

Buffers

24

Small compounds

Monomers

25

Small compounds joined together

Polymer

26

A compound made of C, H, & O atoms, usually in a ratio of 1:2:1

Carbohydrate

27

A single sugar molecule

Monosaccharide

28

Large molecules formed from monosaccharides

Polysaccharides

29

Poly- means

Many

30

A large and varied group of biological molecules. Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms

Lipids

31

Macromolecules containing H, O, N, C, & P

Nucleic acids

32

Consist of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

Nucleotides

33

Nucleic acid containing ribose

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

34

Nucleic acid containing deoxyribose

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

35

Macromolecules that contain N as well as C, H, & O

Proteins

36

Compounds with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end

Amino acids

37

A process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

Chemical reaction

38

The elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction

Reactants

39

The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

Products

40

The energy needed to get a reaction started

Activation energy

41

A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

Catalyst

42

Proteins that act as biological catalysts

Enzymes

43

The reactants of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

Substrates