Chapter 20- The Kidney Flashcards Preview

Robbins Pathology Renal (Chaptr 20,21) > Chapter 20- The Kidney > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 20- The Kidney Deck (86)
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1

What is the amount of blood that the kidney filters a day and into what amount of urine

1700L into 1 L of urine

2

In general, most damage to the glomeruli of the kidney is due to which mechanism

Immunologically mediated

3

In general, most damage to the tubules of the kidney is due to which mechanism

Toxins or infectious agents

4

In general, most damage to the interstitum of the kidney is due to which mechanism

Toxins or infectious agents

5

What is the meaning of azotemia

Elevation of the blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and decreased GFR

6

Prerenal azotemia is usually caused by which conditions

Hypoperfusion of the kidneys usually do to hypotension or excessive fluid loss (shock, congestive heart failure, cirrhosis)
*Not characterized by parenchymal damage

7

What is postrenal azotemia caused by

Urine flow is obstructed distal to the kidney

8

What is uremia characterized by

Failure of the renal excretory function in addition to metabolic and endocrine alterations

9

Patients with uremia typically manifest secondary involvment of which organs

-GI
-peripheral nerves
-Heart

10

What condition is characterized by:
-Red cast cells
-Hematuria
-low GFR
-mild to moderate proteinuria
-Hypertension

Nephritic syndrome

11

What condition is characterized by:
-Nephritic syndrome
-Rapid decline in GFR (hours to days)

Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis

12

What condition is characterized by:
-heavy proteinuria
-hypoalbuminemia
-severe edema
-hyperlipidemia and lipiduria

Nephrotic syndrome

13

What condition is characterized by:
-Rapid decline in GFR
-dysregulation of fluids and electrolytes
-retention of metabolic waste

Acute kidney injury

14

What condition is characterized by:
-diminished GFR (less than 60ml/min/1.73 for 3 months
-persistent albuminuria

Chronic kidney disease

15

What condition is characterized by:
-5% of normal GFR

end stage renal disease (ESRD)

16

What are some of the secondary glomerular diseases

-SLE
-hypertension
-DM
-Fabry disease

17

What are the structural components of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM)

Collagen Type 4, laminin, heparin sulfate, fibronectin, entactin

18

Which aspect of GBM is crucial for structure formation

-NC1 domain as it allows the formation of the alpha helixes and assembly of the collagen monomers into the basement membrane

19

What is the gene coding for the alpha helix in the GMB

COL4A1 though COL4A6

20

What is the target for the antibodies in anti-GBM nephritis, and why is this crucial

NC1, which is the binding domain for many of the components in the GBM

21

What is the function of the mesangial cells

-Mesenchymal origin that can contract, phagocytose, proliferate, lay down matrix and collagen

22

What is the size of protein that can make it through the glomerulus

-less than 70 kilodaltons

23

What is the important of the Visceral epithelial cells

Maintenance of glomerular barrier function as its slit diaphragm, and is responsible for the synthesis of many of the GBM components

24

What is the function of nephrin

Transmembrane protein that extends to the neighboring foot and dimerizes, covering the filtration slit

25

What are the proteins associated with nephrin as it covers the filtration slit

-podocin, CD2 associated protein (CD2AP), actin skeleton

26

What are the 4 general responses to acute glomerular injury

-Hypercellarity
-Basement membrane thickening
-Hyalinosis
-Sclerosis

27

What are the characteristics of hypercellularity die to acute glomerular injury

-Infiltration of leukocytes, resulting in swelling
-Proliferation of mesangial or endothelial cells
Formation of crescents

28

What is the condition of endocapillary proliferation

Swelling and proliferation of mesangial cells or endothelial cells in response to acute glomerular damage

29

What is occurring in the formation of crescents

-Epithelial cell proliferation following an immune injury to the capillary walls.
-Exposure of the plasma proteins leaking into the urinary space to the procoagulants leads to fibrin deposition

30

What stain is used to see glomerular membrane thickening

PAS stain