Flashcards in Chapter 20 - Workforce Motivation Deck (15)
Define the nature of Motivation
From an organisational point of view, motivation is the willingness of an employee to achieve organisational goals.
The motivation process comprises an inner state of mind that channels an employees behaviour and energy towards the attainment of organisational goals.
The Motivation Process
The variable of performance
MOTIVATION x ABILITY x OPPORTUNITY = PERFORMANCE
CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
They deal with the “what” of motivation
They identify the needs that employees want to satisfy
They identify the factors that influence the behavior of employees
Content theories: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
This consists of five levels of needs arranged in a hierarchy from lower order to higher order needs.
Self actualization needs
Criticisms of Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
1. During certain periods of people’s lives they might reorder the levels of the Hierarchy in their personal lives. Eg CEO gets retrenched, their lower order needs resurface.
2. It’s difficult to predict the level of needs at which an individual is motivated by at a specific time.
3. Many employees in a business make it nearly impossible for a manager to know all his employees unsatisfied needs
4. Individuals differ in the extent to which they feel their needs have been satisfied.
The Erg Theory
Categorizes human needs into three broad categories
Existence, Relatedness and Growth Needs
This is different from Maslow’s theory because Alderfer suggested that more than one level of needs can motivate at the same time.
Eg a desire for friendship and a need for a promotion can influence motivation of an individual. It has a frustration regression aspect that suggests when a need remains unsatisfied then an individual revert to satisfying lower order needs.
It’s more flexible than Maslow’s because different levels of Needs can be satisfied at different times
Hertzbergs two factor motivation theory
This distinguishes between hygiene factors and motivators.
Hygiene factors are sources of work dissatisfaction if they are not met, these include factors of work context such as Salary, Job security, Company policy and interpersonal relationships.
Hygiene was factors are associated with negative feelings about ones work.
Salary is a hygiene factors so it won’t motivate people unless it’s a monetary award linked to performance, which awards the employee recognition and in turn motivation.
Hertzberg theory is different from Maslow as he assume employees have already satisfied their lower order needs(economic and social) to such an extent that Maslow’s higher order needs will only satisfy them. However they must continue to satisfy their lower order needs in order to maintain their present situation.
Hertz berg theory believes factors such as
Advancement leads to motivation through job enrichment.
McClelland’s Acquired needs model
States that people acquire different types of need during a lifetime of interaction with the environment.
McClelland research indicated that different needs predominate in different people.
3 Needs Types
NAch - need for achievement
- need to excel
NAff - need for affiliation
- the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
NPow - need for power
- need to make other behave in a way they wouldn’t normally behave.
A significant aspect of McClellands research is that people can acquire the need for achievement through training to encourage them to think in terms of accomplishments, winning and success and to prefer situations in which they have personal responsibility, regular feedback and have to take moderate risks.
Process theories of motivation
These theories attempt to focus on hoe motivation occurs.
Process theories- Equity theory of motivation
individuals compare their inputs and outputs to those of someone who they perceive as an equal to establish If the reward they receive is fair.
If Individuals feel they are under rewarded they will do one of the following
- reduce inputs through lower performance
- increase their reward by asking for a raise
- distort the ratios by rationalizing
- attempt to persuade the other individual to charge their inputs/rewards
- leave the situation by rendering a resignation
- find a new person to use in their comparisons
Process Theories - Expectancy theory
Individuals need to perceive a relationship between their
effort and performance, their
performance and the reward they receive and
The value they place on the reward.
3 elements of the expectancy theory (determine an individuals work motivations):
Expectancy: particular level of performance will follow a particular level of effort. Salespersons will be sure to make more sales if they work overtime.
Instrumentality: The degree to which a level of performance will achieve a desired outcome. High instrumentality is a salesperson believes that more sales will lead to a bonus.
Valence: this is the value that an individual attached to various work outcomes. For high motivation a person must value the outcomes they will receive. Salesperson must put considerable value on the bonus they will receive.
Reinforcement theory of motivation
Behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently. Behaviors followed by negative consequences occur less frequently.
Ways to reinforce desired behavior:
- positive reinforcement
* intrinsic or extrinsic rewards
- reinforce desired behavior through avoidance of undesirable behavior. A person who sticks to a target date in order to avoid getting a reminder from organization.
- negative reinforcement
* Punishment - not efficient because once negative reinforcement is neutralized, they fall back into old patterns of undesirable behavior.
*Extinction - weakening behavior, especially one that was previously rewarded. Eg Old manager appreciated employee to tell tales of co workers, but new manager wishes to discourage behavior by ignoring them and not reacting, the subordinates behavior will then become extinct.
Types of Scheduled reinforcement
- continuous reinforcement - lecturer writes individual commentary on each assignment submitted by an individual.
- fixed interval schedule - reinforcement at fixed times regardless of behavior. Eg as long as an individual works during a specific period of time, he or she will receive a salary.
- Variable interval schedule - uses time as a basis of reinforcement
- Fixed ratio - Provides reinforcement after a fixed number of performances
Variable ratio schedule influences the maintenance of desired behavior the most by rewarding performance exponentially.
5 Steps a manager should follow to to enhance motivation through reinforcement theory.
- identify critical, observable, performance related behaviors.
- measure the frequency workers engage in this behavior
- Analyze causes and consequences of this behavior to help managers recreate conditions
- Use positive and negative reinforcement to increase frequency of behavior
- Evaluate extent to which performance was influenced by reinforcement.
**Money as a motivator
Maslows and Hetzberg- satisfies lower order needs
Hertzberg links a monetary reward to performance.
Equity Theory suggests that pay is a measurement of fair treatment by comparing individual outputs.
Expectancy Theory suggests money is an motivator when employees perceive good performance results in a monetary reward that they value highly.
Reinforcement theory suggest money is a reward to reinforce behavior that leads to positive job performance.
From the above we conclude that organisations should base a balanced reward system on the assumption that different people have different needs which satisfy them in different ways. This is especially relevant to the South African workforce which is hugely diverse.
A reward system should make provision for intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to create an environment in which employees will be motivated to achieve organisational goals.