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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Communication Deck (15)
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The Communication Process

Communication is the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols.


The sender initiates the process by conveying information to the receiver - the person for whom the message is intended.

The sender has the meaning and the meaning get encoded through the use of shared symbols.

The sender transmits, or send the message through a channel such as a verbal or written medium.

The receiver decides the message and attempts to interpret the senders meaning.

The received may then provide feedback.



Noise could be anything that interferes with accurate communication: ringing telephones, thoughts about other things, or simple fatigue or stress.

A manager who is alert to potential problems can perform each step carefully to ensure more effective communication.


Visual Process

Sender - Encoding - Channel - Decoding - Receiver



Ares in the communication process where problems can occur

Confusion in communicating

- Lack of Mutuality - Bulgaria side to side shake of head = yes and nod = no therefore confusing

Communication Pitfalls

-Errors in Encoding - eg. words can be misused, ambiguous phrases used and decimals used in the wrong place.

- Errors in Decoding - eg. Receiver doesn’t listen carefully and reads too quickly and overlooks a key point.


Define perception

The process of receiving and interpreting information- sometimes not objective because self interested motives and attitudes toward the sender and toward the message create biased interpretations.

To remedy this situation, it helps to remember that others’ viewpoints are legitimate and to incorporate others’ perspectives into your interpretation of issues.


Define Filtering

Filtering is the process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information.

Senders do this, for example, when they tell the boss what they think the boss wants to hear or give unwarranted compliments rather than honest criticism.

Receivers also filter information; they may fail to recognise an important message or attend to some aspects of the message but not others.


Organizational Communication Networks

Two primary organizational communication networks :

Formal communication Networks
- The formal network is communication that follows the hierarchical structure of the organisation, or the ‘chain of command”

Informal communication Networks
- Informal communication refers to links that have grown out of relationships between employees and management and that have little or no correlation with the formal organisational chart.


Formal Communication

Organisational communication flows in four directions: downwards, upwards, horizontally, and laterally.

Downwards communication

- top management > subordinates
- likely to be filtered
- provides information to subordinates of organizational goals, strategies and policies

Horizontal Communication

- between people of the same hierarchical level.
- designed to improve and ensure coordination of work effort.

Lateral Communication

- between people on different hierarchical levels
- used to provide information, coordination and assistance to both or one party.


Informal Communication

The grapevine
The grapevine’s prime function is to disseminate information to employees (both managerial and non-managerial) that is relevant to their needs.

- derives it’s existence from employees social and personal interests.

- Since it is always present, speedy, and largely accurate, managers should use it as another means of transmitting information.

Rumors are information spread without a factual base.


Barriers to effective communication


National Culture
- communication differences arising from different languages and national culture.

- how the receiver feels when they revive the message

- how males and females react to information may be different, each have a different communication style

- Words have different meanings to different people, receivers will use their own perceptions of words communicated.

Information overload
- amount of information one has to work with exceeds ones ability to process it all

- The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver.

Selective perception
-receiving information on the basis of what one selectively sees or hears depending on their own needs, motivation or experience.


How technology affect managerial communication

It improves a manager’s ability to monitor performance;

it gives employees more complete information to make faster decisions;

it has provided employees more opportunities to collaborate and share information;

and it has made it possible for people to be fully accessible, anytime anywhere.

IT has affected managerial communication through the use of networked computer systems, wireless capabilities, and knowledge management systems.


What is active listening?

Unlike hearing, listening involves searching for a full meaning without making snap-judgments or interpretations, and this requires complete concentration

Hearing is just passive.

Effective managers need to devote a good potion of time and effort to stakeholders and they do this through active listening.

Active listening is enhanced by developing empathy with the sender—that is, by putting yourself in the sender’s position.

Because senders differ in attitudes, interests, needs, and expectations, empathy makes it easier to understand the actual content of a message

An empathetic listener reserves judgment on the message’s content and carefully listens to what is being said


Social media vs Other forms of communication

Channel is not as rich as face to face because it is normally done thorough text, therefore emotions may not be communicated effectively.

Feedback is quick but not instantaneous

Nonverbal cues are not available


Ineffective communication is the fault of the sender.’ Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Discuss.

the sender is responsible for adapting the message for maximum fidelity in its transmission and interpretation.


How might a manager use the grapevine to his or her advantage? Support your response.

The grapevine is the unofficial way that communications take place in an organisation.

Information is spread by word of mouth—and even through electronic means today.

Although the information flowing is inaccurate, it still contains some element of truth.

So, a manager can find out what the employees know or are talking about, i.e., what is important to them.