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1

Six supergroups

Archaeplastids
Chromalveolates
Excavates
Amoebozoa
Rhizaria
Opisthokonts

2

Protists

Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Protista
Unicellular
Photosynthetic/Heterotrophic

3

Endocytosis

Ingest particulate food matter pulling them into food vacuoles lysosomes fuse and introduce enzymes

4

Parasitic

Typically absorb body fluids of host

5

Mixotrophic

Combine autotrophic and heterotrophic nutritional modes

6

Lifecycles

Many protists survive unfavorable environments by forming cysts

Asexual reproduction most common

Some species have an unusual my mitosis

Sexual Reproduction
Meiosis
Allows frequent genetic recombination

7

Mitosis

Parent cells split to form equal size daughter cells

8

Schizogony

Cell division preceded by several nuclear divisions one parent cell produces several individuals

9

Meiosis

Union of haploid gametes to form a diploid cell.

10

Evolution and diversity of protist

Protist are not plants animals or fungi
They are not monophyletic

11

Chromalveolata ( alveolates)

Alveolates have alveoli lying beneath their plasma membrane

includes diniflagellates ciliates and apicomplexans

12

Dinoflagellates

Typically two flagella

Symbiotic zooxanthellae are found in corals

Karenia brevis causes red tide.
Some lack chloroplast and considered parasitic instead of mutualistic

13

Ciliates

Pellicle- tough flexible outer covering

Have to types of nuclei
Micronucleus
Macronucleus

Have two types of vacuoles
Food vacuoles
contractile vacuoles

14

Apicomplexans

Spore forming animal parasites

Apical complex a unique arrangement of organelles
Enables protist to invade its host cell

(Ex.) Malaria
Plasmodium
Hosts are anopheles(mosquito) and the human

Toxoplasma Gondii
Invades the epithelial cells of the human intestine
Causes Taxoplasmosis
Primary host is Falidae(cat)

15

Escavata

Absent mitochondria and distinctive flagella

Includes euglenids,parabasalids, diplomonads, and kinetoplastids

16

Euglenids

Small freshwater unicellular organisms
Two flagella and one eyespot with a photo receptor
One flagellum is much longer than the other
Sell bounded by flexible pellicle
Chloroplast surrounded by three rather than two membranes
Many are mixotrophs

17

Parabasalids

Single nuclei
flagellated
Endosymbionts of animals
Able to survive in low oxygen environments
Lack mitochondria
Causes trichomonas vaginalis

18

Diplomonads

Two nuclei
Two sets of flagella
endosymbionts of animals
Lack mitochondria
Causes giardia ( Look at Giardia)

19

Kinetoplastids

Predominately parasitic
Unique single mitochondria
Causes Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness( Look at cycles)

20

Amoebozoa

Protozoans that move by pseudopods
Usually live in aquatic environments where they are often part of the plankton
Pseudopods form when cytoplasm streams forward in a particular direction
Uses Phagocytosis for food ingestion

21

Entamoeba Histolytica

A parasite of the human: causes amoebic dysentery can be fatal

22

Amoeba Proteus

The cytoplasm region is divided into two parts outer layer membrane ectoplasm and Inner watery mass endoplasm
Found in freshwater
Produce sexually
eat other protozoans

23

Rhizarians

Radiolarians and for Foraminiferans
Outer skeleton called a test

Radiolarians:
Glassy skeleton made of silica
Needle like pseudopods
Float in marine habitat
Heterotrophic

Foraminifera:
Heterotrophic marine protist
Calcium carbonate test is often multi chambered

24

Opisthokonts

Choanoflagellates- animal like protozoans that are near relatives of sponges
Unicellular
Asexual reproduction
Single flagellum surrounded by funnel shaped collar
Filter feeders
Phagocytosis is used