the name of underwear which was made out of a expensive linen cloth and generally only available to the wealthy due to the prohibitive cost.
conflicting classes existed, in part, because many individuals came to believe they existed and developed an appropriate sense of class feeling.
a form of coal that was unlimited in supply and therefore easier and better to use.
passed in 1799, these acts outlawed unions and strikes.
Combination Acts of 1799
the location of the Great Exposition in 1851 in London, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron, both of which were now cheap and abundance.
the idea that countries should protect and foster their own businesses by imposing high protective tariffs on imported goods as well as eliminating tariffs within the country.
this act limited the factory workday for children between nice and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen to twelve hours.
Factory Act of 1833
organized by Owen in 1834, this was one of the largest and most visionary early national unions.
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
a term used to describe the burst of major inventions and technical changes they had witnessed in certain industries.
because of the pressure of population growth, wages would always sink to subsistence level, meaning that wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving.
iron law of wages
handicraft workers who attacked whole factories in northern England in 1812 and after smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work.
this act prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under ten.
Mines Act of 1842
the name given to George Stephensons effective locomotive that was first tested in 1830 on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 miles per hour.
a spinning machine by James Hargreaves in 1765 that used six to twenty-four spindles mounted on a sliding carriage to spin a fine thread.
a breakthrough invention by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 that both burned coal to produce steam which was then used to operate a pump, although inefficient they were still used successfully in English and Scottish mines.
a governments way of supporting and aiding their own economy by laying high tariffs on the cheaper, imported goods of another country, ex . when France responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country with high tariffs on British imports.
a spinning machine by Richard Arkwright that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used water power thereby required a larger and more specialized mill but the thread it spun was thicker, generally the thread was then spun on a Spinning Jenny to achieve the desired thickness.