Flashcards in CH 24 Deck (38)
In 1900, __________ Europe was the most urbanized area.
A) southern D) northeastern
B) southeastern E) northwestern
The term labor aristocracy in this text refers to
A) trade union leadership.
B) highly skilled workers and foremen.
C) Karl Marx's concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
D) wealthy industrialists.
E) nobles who became involved in the socialist movement.
Georges Haussmann is remembered for
A) developing the antiseptic method.
B) rebuilding Paris.
C) his realistic novels of lower-class life.
D) enunciation of the positivist philosophy.
E) pioneering the use of anesthesia.
Improved economic conditions in the nineteenth century led to
A) more job opportunities for women outside the home.
B) more women remaining single.
C) the expectation that married women would not work outside the home.
D) a mass exodus of women from domestic service.
E) extension of the vote to women in much of Europe.
Honoré de Balzac's The Human Comedy
A) was a best-selling marriage manual.
B) described the role of religion in everyday life.
C) was a Romantic history of the Napoleonic era.
D) was a hundredvolume masterpiece of realism.
E) was an epic poem describing the life of King Louis XVI.
According to the text, working-class leisure typically included all of the following
A) drinking in taverns. D) hosting dinner parties.
B) watching spectator sports. E) gambling.
C) attending music hall performances.
Joseph Lister is responsible for the
A) development of the germ theory.
B) popularization of the miasmatic theory.
C) practice of antiseptic sterilization.
D) theory of genetics.
E) theory of the separation of powers.
The common aspects that united the middle classes included all of the following except
A) keeping servants. D) a strict code of behavior.
B) commitment to frugal living. E) commitment to hard work.
C) belief in education.
The decline in working-class church attendance has been attributed to all of the
A) the influence of Auguste Comte's writings.
B) a decline in religious belief and faith.
C) the growth of secularism and the vibrant, materialist urban environment.
D) the identification of organized religion with the ruling elites.
E) the fact that construction of churches in cities failed to keep up with growing
Edwin Chadwick believed that
A) poverty was the result of lower-class immorality.
B) individuals were responsible for their economic success.
C) death and disease caused poverty.
D) Christian morals should be the basis of urban reform.
E) regulating the food-processing industry would rapidly reduce urban mortality
The flaw in Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's theory of evolution was
A) his assertion that characteristics parents acquired in the course of their lives could
be passed on to their offspring by heredity.
B) his denial that human beings had evolved from other primates.
C) his claim that genetic mutations were random.
D) his assertion that all forms of life had arisen through a long process of continuous
adjustment to the environment.
E) his assertion that God intervened to push evolution in the direction of greater
The breakthrough development of germ theory was the work of
A) Georges Haussmann. D) Robert Koch.
B) Louis Pasteur. E) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
C) Joseph Lister.
Napoleon III believed that rebuilding Paris would lead to all of the following except
A) increased employment.
B) a more equitable division of wealth.
C) glorification of his empire.
D) improved living conditions.
E) greater control over revolutionary crowds.
As the nineteenth century progressed, the upper middle class
A) tended to merge with the old aristocracy.
B) formed tighter bonds with the rest of the middle class.
C) expressed a high degree of social conscience.
D) retained its frugal attitudes.
E) increasingly turned toward socialism.
Which of these events occurred last?
A) Italy is unified.
B) France and Prussia fight the Franco-Prussian War.
C) Austria and Prussia fight the Austro-Prussian War.
D) Dostoevski publishes The Brothers Karamazov.
E) Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species.
The white-collar employees identified with the
A) clergy. D) aristocracy.
B) union movement. E) middle class.
C) working class.
According to the text, one of the social functions of the “labor aristocracy's” strict moral
A) to convince the middle classes that they “belonged.”
B) to create a strong barrier against socialist influences.
C) to maintain their unstable social and economic position.
D) to prevent their children from joining the supposedly morally corrupt middle
E) to serve as an example to lower-paid unskilled workers.
In the Balkans, white-collar workers (clerks, store managers, and so on) grew their
fingernails very long because
A) they were imitating fashion in the Ottoman capital of Istanbul.
B) they wished to separate themselves from those who worked with their hands.
C) long fingernails were thought to be a mark of good hygiene.
D) they could not afford nail clippers.
E) they viewed long nails as a sign of asceticism and hence saintliness.
Ignorance and ______________ were most responsible for the poor conditions in early
A) government indifference D) air pollution
B) poor hygiene E) the legacy of rural housing
C) an unhealthy water supply
The decline in illegitimacy rates after 1850 was probably the result of
A) higher incidence of marriage for expectant mothers.
B) decreased premarital sexual activity.
C) urban renewal.
D) increased availability of contraception and abortion.
E) the increased influence of religion among the lower classes.
My Secret Life describes
A) the harsh world of sweated industries.
B) the search for scientific discoveries.
C) the seamy, underground sex life of a Victorian rake.
D) the psychological stress created by the new, stifling family structure.
E) a bourgeois factory owner who worked as a common factory operative for a year.
After 1850, husbands and wives, in the cities, were able to work together only in
A) factories. D) small-scale retail trade.
B) sweated industries. E) mines.
C) whitecollar jobs.
According to the ____________ theory of disease, people contract disease when they
breathe the bad odors of decay.
A) miasmatic B) putrification C) degeneration D) effluvial E) Lister
One positive aspect of the rigid separation of men and women was
A) that women were no longer exploited in sweated industries.
B) a decline in the rape and abuse of young women.
C) a larger role for women in managing the household.
D) the relative decline of prostitution.
E) the appearance of women doctors to care for women patients.
Gustave Droz is cited for his
A) discoveries in the fields of biology.
B) Mr., Mrs., and Baby, a family manual.
C) leadership of the realist movement.
D) rebuilding of Paris.
E) advocacy of women's rights.
The revolutionary reduction in the size of European families was in large part caused by
A) the family's desire to improve its economic and social position.
B) the effectiveness and availability of birth control.
C) women wanting to pursue careers outside the home.
D) oppressive Victorian morality.
E) an epidemic of infertility related to environmental contamination.
Working-class children probably were under less parental control than middle-class
children in the later nineteenth century because
A) socialist thinkers believed in allowing children more freedom.
B) rates of illegitimacy continued to rise among the working classes.
C) members of the working class attended church less often than members of the
D) working-class children went to work and became independent earners earlier.
E) working-class women had to work outside the home.
Generally, Freud postulated that
A) people were motivated by reason.
B) sexual desires are a minor component in people's behavior.
C) human behavior is motivated by unconscious emotional needs.
D) heredity was the key factor in explaining incidences of mental illness.
E) human behavior had its origin in natural selection.
In 1900, in almost every advanced country the richest 5 percent of the population
received about _________ percent of all national income.
A) 66 B) 25 C) 10 D) 50 E) 33