Chapter 23- Ventilation & Gas Exchange Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology Exam 2 > Chapter 23- Ventilation & Gas Exchange > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 23- Ventilation & Gas Exchange Deck (95)
Loading flashcards...
1

Ventilation?

Movement of air between the atmosphere and respiratory portion of the lungs


*MOVEMENT*

2

Perfusion?

Flow of blood through the lungs


*BLOOD FLOW*

3

Diffusion?

Transfer of gases between the air filled spaces in the lungs and the blood

4

Examples of perfusion?

- thrombus in vessels
- severe anemia

5

When inserting an endotracheal tube, a medical professional will typically advance the tube where?

To the right, due to the nature of the trachea.


* Right side of trachea into the lungs is a wider angle

* left side of trachea into the lungs is a more narrow turn

6

Dissolved oxygen = _______ or _________?

PaO2 or PO2

7

What is the normal value of dissolved oxygen?

Normal value > 80mm Hg

8

Oxygen bound to hemoglobin = ?

Oxyhemoglobin

9

Normal Oxygen saturation value is ______ to _______?

94% to 100%

10

Dissolved carbon dioxide = _______ or _________?

PaCO2 or PCO2

11

Normal Carbon Dioxide value = ?

35-45 mm Hg

12

Carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin =?

Carbaminohemoglobin

13

When you exhale you remove _______ from your blood?

CO2



* you also decrease the amount of carbonic acid, raising your blood PH

14

Hypoxemia?

Reduced oxygenation of the arterial blood


* PO2 <60mm Hg or Pox around 90%

15

What is Cyanosis?

Bluish discoloration
(Of the skin & mucous membranes)

16

Central Cyanosis is evident where?

In the tongue and lips

17

Peripheral Cyanosis is evident where?

On the extremities & tip of the nose and ears

18

Which is more serious, Peripheral cyanosis OR central cyanosis?

Central cyanosis

19

If a patient has hypoventilation, there building up _______ and not getting enough ________.

Building up: CO2
Not getting enough: O2

20

Signs and symptoms of Hypoxemia?

- Tachypneic (fast breathing)
- SOB

21

Ways to diagnose Hypoxemia?

- Pox
- Arterial blood gas (ABG)


* 92% —> nasal canula (2-3L/min)
* 74% —> oxymask ALL THE WAY UP (15L/min)

22

Treatment for Hypoxemia?

- Treat the underline cause
- Oxygen via nasal cannula, mask, or nonrebreather

If No Improvement
- continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (night)
- Bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) (on 1st)
- Intubation

23

Atelectasis?

Incomplete expansion of the lung or portion of a lung


*can be small segment or entire lung*

24

Atelectasis is most commonly seen in who?

Postoperative patients

25

What are the two early signs & symptoms of Atelectasis?

- Tachypnea (fast breathing)
- Tachycardia (fast HR)

26

Atelectasis signs and symptoms?

- Tacypnea
- Tachycardia
- Dyspnea
- Cyanosis
- Absence of breath sounds
- Fever
- Signs of infection

27

Treatment for Atelectasis?

- incentive spirometry
- coughing
- deep breathing

28

What is Hypercapnia?

Increased carbon dioxide in the arterial blood

29

Hypercapnia is PCO2 of ___________?

> 50mm Hg

30

Signs & Symptoms of Hypercapnia?

- Hypoventilation
- decreased RR
- Altered mental status