Flashcards in Chapter 23- Ventilation & Gas Exchange Deck (95)
Movement of air between the atmosphere and respiratory portion of the lungs
Flow of blood through the lungs
Transfer of gases between the air filled spaces in the lungs and the blood
Examples of perfusion?
- thrombus in vessels
- severe anemia
When inserting an endotracheal tube, a medical professional will typically advance the tube where?
To the right, due to the nature of the trachea.
* Right side of trachea into the lungs is a wider angle
* left side of trachea into the lungs is a more narrow turn
Dissolved oxygen = _______ or _________?
PaO2 or PO2
What is the normal value of dissolved oxygen?
Normal value > 80mm Hg
Oxygen bound to hemoglobin = ?
Normal Oxygen saturation value is ______ to _______?
94% to 100%
Dissolved carbon dioxide = _______ or _________?
PaCO2 or PCO2
Normal Carbon Dioxide value = ?
35-45 mm Hg
Carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin =?
When you exhale you remove _______ from your blood?
* you also decrease the amount of carbonic acid, raising your blood PH
Reduced oxygenation of the arterial blood
* PO2 <60mm Hg or Pox around 90%
What is Cyanosis?
(Of the skin & mucous membranes)
Central Cyanosis is evident where?
In the tongue and lips
Peripheral Cyanosis is evident where?
On the extremities & tip of the nose and ears
Which is more serious, Peripheral cyanosis OR central cyanosis?
If a patient has hypoventilation, there building up _______ and not getting enough ________.
Building up: CO2
Not getting enough: O2
Signs and symptoms of Hypoxemia?
- Tachypneic (fast breathing)
Ways to diagnose Hypoxemia?
- Arterial blood gas (ABG)
* 92% —> nasal canula (2-3L/min)
* 74% —> oxymask ALL THE WAY UP (15L/min)
Treatment for Hypoxemia?
- Treat the underline cause
- Oxygen via nasal cannula, mask, or nonrebreather
If No Improvement
- continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (night)
- Bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) (on 1st)
Incomplete expansion of the lung or portion of a lung
*can be small segment or entire lung*
Atelectasis is most commonly seen in who?
What are the two early signs & symptoms of Atelectasis?
- Tachypnea (fast breathing)
- Tachycardia (fast HR)
Atelectasis signs and symptoms?
- Absence of breath sounds
- Signs of infection
Treatment for Atelectasis?
- incentive spirometry
- deep breathing
What is Hypercapnia?
Increased carbon dioxide in the arterial blood
Hypercapnia is PCO2 of ___________?
> 50mm Hg