Flashcards in Chapter 19- Disorders Of Cardiac Function Deck (63)
Arteries and arterioles function as what?
Distribution system to move blood to the tissues
Capillaries serve as what?
an exchange system where the transfer of gases, nutrients, and wastes takes place
what do venues and veins serve as?
serve as collection and storage vessels that return blood to the heart
Electrocardiography is also known as what?
12 lead ECG or EKG
what is the most common diagnostic test for the heart?
Cardiac catheterization or arteriography
what is pericarditis?
inflammation of the pericardium
causes of Pericarditis?
- Pain (relieved with leaning forward)
- Friction rub (rubbing sound heard w/ stethoscope)
- ECG changes
Friction rub is associated with what?
leaning forward helps relieve what problem?
What is the treatment for Pericarditis and why?
Treatment = NSAID's
Aspirin, prednisone, etc.
Why = given to decrease inflammation
What is Pericardial Effusion?
The accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac
Consequences of pericardial effusion?
DECREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT!
Why is there decreased cardiac output with pericardial effusion?
- fluid in pericardial cavity, restricts heart expansion
- right and left ventricles cannot accept enough blood
- left ventricle = decreased cardiac output
Right ventricle = increased venous pressure; jugular distention
- Decreased cardiac output from the left ventricle = DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE AND SHOCK
Signs and Symptoms of Pericardial Effusion?
- Decreased LOC
- Restlessness and Irritability
- Unable to wake
Cardiac Tamponade is what?
A Medical Emergency!
You usually have ___________________ that leads to a cardiac tamponade
A Pericardial Effusion
Compression of the heart due to accumulation of fluid, pus, or blood in the pericardial sac
where are cardiac enzymes released from?
necrotic heart cell
Myoglobin is specific to what?
skeletal and heart muscle
Creatine kinase (CK) is specific to what?
skeletal and heart muscle
Creatine Kinase (CK-MB)?
myocardial b fraction
- specific to skeletal and heart muscle
Troponin is specific to what?
Specific to the heart muscle
What is the key diagnostic test to determine heart issues?
Troponin** (Will be elevated!)
What is stable angina?
occurs when oxygen demands are increased either caused by activity or stress
** pain during activity (ex: mowing lawn) but then goes away with rest!
What is Variant angina?
pain when coronary arteries spasm
(ex: emotional stress, cocaine use, alcohol withdrawal)
No increase in cardiac enzymes is seen in what type of angina?
Unstable Angina occurs when?
Occurs at rest (or with minimal exertion)
Unstable Angina may occur at rest, BUT?
DOESN'T GET BETTER WITH REST
When your symptoms stay even with rest, what type of angina is it?