Chapter 19- Disorders Of Cardiac Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19- Disorders Of Cardiac Function Deck (63)
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1

Arteries and arterioles function as what?

Distribution system to move blood to the tissues

2

Capillaries serve as what?

an exchange system where the transfer of gases, nutrients, and wastes takes place

3

what do venues and veins serve as?

serve as collection and storage vessels that return blood to the heart

4

Electrocardiography is also known as what?

12 lead ECG or EKG

5

what is the most common diagnostic test for the heart?

Cardiac catheterization or arteriography

6

what is pericarditis?

inflammation of the pericardium

7

causes of Pericarditis?

Triad symptoms
- Pain (relieved with leaning forward)
- Friction rub (rubbing sound heard w/ stethoscope)
- ECG changes

8

Friction rub is associated with what?

Pericarditis

9

leaning forward helps relieve what problem?

Pericarditis

10

What is the treatment for Pericarditis and why?

Treatment = NSAID's
Aspirin, prednisone, etc.
Why = given to decrease inflammation

11

What is Pericardial Effusion?

The accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac

12

Consequences of pericardial effusion?

DECREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT!

13

Why is there decreased cardiac output with pericardial effusion?

- fluid in pericardial cavity, restricts heart expansion
- right and left ventricles cannot accept enough blood
- left ventricle = decreased cardiac output
Right ventricle = increased venous pressure; jugular distention
- Decreased cardiac output from the left ventricle = DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE AND SHOCK

14

Signs and Symptoms of Pericardial Effusion?

EARLY
- Tachypenia
- Tachycardia
- Decreased LOC
- Restlessness and Irritability

LATE
- Hypotension
- Unable to wake
- Modeling

15

Cardiac Tamponade is what?

A Medical Emergency!

16

You usually have ___________________ that leads to a cardiac tamponade

A Pericardial Effusion

17

Cardiac Tamponade?

Compression of the heart due to accumulation of fluid, pus, or blood in the pericardial sac

18

where are cardiac enzymes released from?

necrotic heart cell

19

Myoglobin is specific to what?

skeletal and heart muscle

20

Creatine kinase (CK) is specific to what?

skeletal and heart muscle

21

Creatine Kinase (CK-MB)?

myocardial b fraction
- specific to skeletal and heart muscle

22

Troponin is specific to what?

Specific to the heart muscle

23

What is the key diagnostic test to determine heart issues?

Troponin** (Will be elevated!)

24

What is stable angina?

occurs when oxygen demands are increased either caused by activity or stress

** pain during activity (ex: mowing lawn) but then goes away with rest!

25

What is Variant angina?

pain when coronary arteries spasm
(ex: emotional stress, cocaine use, alcohol withdrawal)

26

No increase in cardiac enzymes is seen in what type of angina?

Unstable Angina

27

Unstable Angina occurs when?

Occurs at rest (or with minimal exertion)

28

Unstable Angina may occur at rest, BUT?

DOESN'T GET BETTER WITH REST

29

When your symptoms stay even with rest, what type of angina is it?

Unstable Angina

30

What does an EKG show in NSTEMI?

Shows signs of ST depression