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Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (27)
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A stated position, with support for or against an idea or issue

Argument

1

To declare a state of affairs

Claim

2

Supporting material that provides grounds for belief

Evidence

3

A line of reasoning. Helps to support a claim and to substantiate in the audience's mind the link between the claim and the evidence

Warrants

4

Focus on whether something is or is not true or whether something will or will not happen

Claims of fact

5

Address issues of judgement

Claims of value

6

A type of claim of fact that addresses questions for which answers are not yet available

Speculative claims

7

A group's rules for behavior

Cultural norms

8

Recommend that a specific course of action be taken or approved

Claims of policy

9

A group's shared beliefs and values about personal identity and relationships

Cultural premises

10

Use the needs, desires, emotions, and values of audience members as the basis for accepting some evidence as support for a claim, and thus accepting the claim itself

Motivational warrants

11

Operate on the basis of the audience's beliefs about the reliability of factual evidence

Substantive warrants

12

A warrant that appeals to the credibility the audience assigns to the source of the evidence

Authoritative warrants

13

Offer a cause-and-effect relationship as proof of the claim

Warrants by cause

14

Imply that such a close relationship exists between two variables that the presence or absence of one may be taken as an indication of the presence or absence of the other

Warrants by sign

15

Compare two similar cases and imply that what is true in one case is true in the other

Warrants by analogy

16

Is either a false or erroneous statement or an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning

Logical fallacy

17

A theory of persuasive speaking in which a speaker anticipates and addresses counterarguments

Inoculation effect

18

A fallacy in which an argument is stated in such a way that it cannot help but be true, even though no evidence has been presented

Begging the question

19

Pose arguments that use general opinions as their bases

Bandwagoning

20

Poses an argument stated in terms of only two alternatives, even though there may be many additional alternatives

Either-or fallacy

21

Targets a person instead of the issue at hand in a attempt to incite an audience's dislike for that person

Ad hominem argument

23

A fallacy of reasoning in which the speaker relies on irrelevant information to support an argument

Red herring fallacy

24

A fallacy of reasoning in which the speaker attempts to support a claim by asserting that a particular piece of evidence is true for all individuals or conditions concerned

Hasty generalization

25

An argument in which the conclusion is not connected to the reasoning

Non sequitur

26

An argument based on a faulty assumption that one case will necessarily lead to a series of events or actions

Slippery slope

27

A fallacy of reasoning in which the speaker argues for the truth of a claim based on solely on common practices in the past

Appeal to tradition