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Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (33):
0

Are prokaryotes mostly unicellular?

Yes.

1

What are the three most common shapes of prokaryotes?

The sphere(cocci) the rod(bacilli) and spirals.

2

What is the eukaryotic cell made of?

Cellulose and chitin.

3

What's peptidoglycan?

A network of sugar polymers cross-linked by polypeptides.

4

What is the gram stain used for?

To classify bacteria by cell wall composition.

5

What does gram positive mean?

The bacteria has simpler walls with large amounts of peptidoglycan.

6

What does gram negative mean?

The bacteria has less peptidoglycan and an outer membrane that can be toxic.

7

What is taxis?

The ability to move toward or away from the stimulus.

8

What is chemotaxis?

The movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus.

9

What is bacterial flagella composed of?

Motor,hook, and filament.

10

What is exaptation?

It's when existing structures take on new functions through descent modification.

11

What do prokaryotes usually lack?

Complex compartmentalization.

12

Where is the chromosome located?

In the nucleoid region.

13

How do prokaryotes reproduce?

Binary fission.

14

What are the three key features of prokaryotes reproduction?

They are small.
They reproduce by binary fission.
They have short generation times.

15

What are the three factors that contribute to genetic diversity?

Rapid reproduction.
Mutation.
Genetic recombination.

16

What is genetic recombination?

The combining of DNA from two sources,contributes to diversity.

17

What is horizontal gene transfer?

Movement of genes among individuals from different species.

18

What is transformation?

When a cell takes up and incorporates foreign DNA from the surrounding environment.

19

What is transduction?

Is the movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages.

20

What is conjugation?

The process where genetic material is transferred between prokaryotic cells.

21

Where does the donor cell attach to?

The recipient by a pilus then pulls it closer and transfers DNA.

22

What is the F factor required to do?

It's required to produce pili.

23

What are parasites that causes diseases?

Pathogens

24

Chemo heterotrophic prokaryotes function as what? and why?

They function as a decomposer and to break down waste products and dead organisms.

25

What are extreme halophiles?

They like extreme conditions of Saline

26

What are extreme thermophiles?

They live in extremely hot environments

27

What is nitrogen fixation?

The change of nitrogen(N2) into ammonia (NH3)

28

What are obligate aerobes?anaerobes?and facultative anaerobes?

Requires O2, poisoned by O2, and can live with or without O2.

29

What are phototrophs?

Obtain energy from light

30

What are chemotrophs?

Obtain energy from chemicals.

31

What are autotrophs?

Require CO2 as a carbon source.

32

What is a heterotroph?

Requires an organic nutrient to make organic compounds.