Chapter 27: Growth and Development of the Preschooler Flashcards Preview

OB Pedi > Chapter 27: Growth and Development of the Preschooler > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 27: Growth and Development of the Preschooler Deck (19):
1

preschool period

3-6 years old

2

Growth

2.5-3 inches year
3-37 inches 32 lbs, 4 40.5 inches , 5- 43 inches 41 pounds
4-5lbs per year
Baby fat-muscle

3

Organ systems

Ear tubes straight and short, Heart rate decreases, BP increases

4

Erickson

initiative vs guilt
inquisitive, accomplishments, pride, guilt, conscience

5

Piaget

Preoperational thought
Preconceptual 2-4
Preoperational 4-7
egocentric, magical thinking, imaginary friend
count to 10, four colors, time concept

Transduction: from one event to another
animism, opposites, knows right and wrong

6

Kohlberg

Punishment vs obedience orientation
knows right from wrong
Deal with anger, even if hitting

7

Gross motor skills

Four years: throws ball overhand, kicks ball, Catches bounced ball, hops on 1 foot, stands on 1 foot, alternate feet on stairs, moves backward and forward

five years: stands on 1 foot for 10 seconds, swings and clients, skips, somersaults, skate and swim

8

Fine motor skills

four years: Scissors, copies capital letters, draws circles and squares, traces a cross or diamond, draw a person with 2 to 4 body part, laces shoes

five years: print some letters, Draw body with six parts, dresses and undresses alone, tie laces, uses a utensil, Copies triangle and other shapes, toileting mostly alone

9

Senses

Site is 20/40 or 20/30. Color vision is intact

10

Language development

Telegraphic speech, using short sentences that contain only essential information. Three years is 90 words, can learn 10 to 20 new words per day, five years knows 2100 words. By the end of this period, they are full sentences.

Communication is concrete in nature. They are not capable of abstract thought. At four years they ask who how how many. At five years they answer questions that he was why and when.

11

Social development

Cooperation, sharing, kindness, generosity, affection display, conversation, expression of feelings, helping others, and making friends. Sense of identity, recognize themselves as a boy or girl. They have fears that can get worse because of their imagination

12

Promoting growth and development

Build self-esteem, routine and ritual are important. Set limits.

Risk factors for lack of social and emotional readiness include insecure attachment, maternal depression, parental substance abuse, and low socioeconomic status.

13

Safety

The leading cause of death for children between one and 14 is accidental injury.

booster seat is used until 4'9" and age of 8 to 12 years old
Call account for the highest percentage of nonfatal injuries among preschoolers
leading accidental death is motor vehicle accidents, and then drowning.
Water heater under 120°
Learn to swim at five years old

14

Nutrition

500 to 800 mg of calcium
10 mg of iron
19 mg dietary fiber
85 cal per kilogram around 1000 to 1600 cal a day
Drinking excess amounts of milk may lead to iron deficiency as the calcium blocks iron absorption

Overweight puts a child at risk for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and the development of insulin resistance.

15

Sleep and rest

11 to 12 hours of sleep a day.

Nightmare: the child is aroused and interactive.
Night terror: occurring short time after falling asleep, the child seems to awaken and is screaming, does not respond to soothing. Eventually she stop screaming and goes back to sleep. It may help to wake the child about 30 to 45 minutes into the sleep cycle.

16

Teeth and gums

Teach flossing. Cariogenic foods should be avoided. If sugary foods are consumed rinse the mouth with water immediately. This is the dentist every six months.

17

Nightmare

scary or bad dream followed by awakening, child wakes the parent after it is over, usually in the second half of the night. They may cry and be scared but they respond to the parents soothing. They may have difficulty going to sleep. They may remember the dream.

18

Night terror

Partial arousal from deep sleep. Screaming and thrashing awakens the parent. Usually about an hour after going to sleep. The child sits up, thrashes, cry, scream, talk, looks wide eyed, sweats, increased heart rate. The child was unaware of the parents present. Rapidly return to sleep. no memory

19

Common developmental concerns

Lying is common. The child fears punishment, strong imagination, or is imitating.

Sex education: Provide simple, direct, honest answers. Keep them short.

masturbation is normal