Chapter 29- Thinking Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 29- Thinking > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 29- Thinking Deck (13):
1

Concepts

Mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people.

2

Cognition

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

3

Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category

4

Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

5

Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms

6

Insight- and what does it contrast with?

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to the problem; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.

7

Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that confirms ones preconceptions

8

Representativeness heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information

9

Availability heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we assume they're common

10

Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements

11

Belief bias

Explains how our preexisting beliefs can distort our logic

12

Belief perseverance

Tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence

13

Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective (an impediment to problem solving)