Chapter 9- Infancy And Childhood Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 9- Infancy And Childhood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9- Infancy And Childhood Deck (20):
1

Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

2

Schema

A mental mold in which we pour our experiences; a concept of something

3

Assimilation

Interpreting ones new experience in terms of one's existing schemas

4

Accommodation

Adapting ones current understanding (schemas) to include new information

5

Cognition

All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering an communicating

6

Sensorimotor stage

Piaget's theory; the stage (birth to 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

7

Object permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

8

Preoperational stage

In Piaget's theory; the stage ( 2-6) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

9

Conservation

The principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape (Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning)

10

Egocentrism (in children)

In Piaget's theory; the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

11

Theory of mind

People's ideas about their own and others' mental states--- about their feelings, perceptions, thoughts and the behavior these might predict

12

Autism

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understandings of others' states of mind

13

Concrete operational stage

In Piaget's theory; the state of cognitive development (from about 6-7 to 11) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

14

Formal operational stage

In Piaget's theory-- the stage of cognitive development (around age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

15

Stranger anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display; beginning by 8 months of age

16

Attachment--- and how it's shown in young children

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress in situations

17

Critical period

An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development

18

Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

19

Basic trust

According to Erik Erickson; a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy-- said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

20

Self-concept

A sense of one's identity and personal worth