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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (36):

The purpose of using advertising media has remained the same ever since advertising was first invented:

Attract a potential customer’s attention and persuade him or her to buy your product.


What do you think is the oldest form of media advertising?

The answer may surprise you:

billboards and out-of-home advertising media


Advertising media can be divided into

below-the-line, above-the-line and through-the-line advertising.


Below the line advertising

Below-the-line promotion refers to forms of non-media communication or advertising;

this type of promotion has become increasingly important in the communications mix of many companies, not only those involved in fast-moving consumer goods, but also those that produce industrial goods.


Above the line advertising

Promotional activities carried out through mass media, such as television, radio and newspapers are classed as above-the-line promotion.


Through the line advertising

Through-the-line promotion refers to an advertising strategy that involves both above- the-line and below-the-line communications; one form of advertising points the target to another form of advertising, thus crossing the “line”.


There are four main participants:

  • the advertiser
  • the advertising agency
  • the media owner
  • the target marketplace.


What and who are the professional participants?

The professional participants are those who make money from advertising. These are as follows: the advertiser the advertising agency the media owner (the company providing the actual media channel/tool


The role of the advertiser is summarised as follows:

Advertiser – wants to satisfy the needs and wants of the target market


The role of the advertising agency is summarised as follows:

Advertising agency – advises on how to communicate product benefits, suggests media options, schedules advertising


The role of the media owner is summarised as follows:

Media owner – books advertisement, places advertisement, broadcasts, prints


The role of the target market is summarised as follows:

Target market – most important player, message directed at this group of people, influence, reach


Functions and interactions between various participants



To achieve your study goals, you need to be able to define, explain and provide relevant examples of the participants in the media process and their different functions.



According to this section of the prescribed book, 50% of total advertising expenditure is for printed media. List the two main types of printed media.

Newspapers. Magazines.


List reasons why people read newspapers and magazines.

  • Leisure
  • Health
  • Travel
  • Business
  • Academic


Newspapers can be divided into the following geographic types:

  • national
  • regional
  • country
  • community
  • suburban

Magazines are usually classified according to lifestyle and consumer interest rather than geographical location.


Print media enables advertisers to transmit their messages in two ways:

visually and verbally.


Newspaper Strenghts

  • proven illustrations/ explanations
  • suitable
  • high frequency
  • adaptable to change
  • cheap per reader
  • geographically selective
  • act as buyer’s guide
  • good news
  • medium high coverage


Newspaper Weaknesses

  • poor reproduction quality
  • short lifespan
  • read selectively
  • reach general audience
  • many advertisers
  • clutter
  • low attention getting


Magazine Strenghts

  • good reproduction quality
  • longer lifespan
  • reach specific market
  • loyal readers
  • national coverage
  • good image creator


Magazine Weaknesses

  • limited flexibility
  • many advertisers
  • not geographically selective
  • short time to convey message


Radio Strengths

  • personal medium
  • geographically selective
  • reach specific audiences
  • no literacy required
  • theatre of the mind
  • low cost


Radio Weaknesses

  • limited availability
  • no illustration
  • possible short messages
  • background medium
  • low attention
  • habitual


Television Strenghts

  • involves most senses
  • message can’t be ignored
  • good for demonstrations
  • psychographic targeting
  • wide coverage
  • prestige value
  • involves entire family
  • high impact
  • high production/flighting costs


Television Weaknesses

  • limited quality time
  • no reference back to message
  • relatively expensive
  • reaches general audience
  • lengthy preparation
  • repetition can irritate
  • only national


Outdoor Strenghts

  • low cost per passer-by
  • high frequency advertising
  • geographically selective
  • support and reminder
  • large product presentation
  • high impact


Outdoor Weaknesses

  • SHORT message
  • reaches general passers-by
  • relatively limited space
  • high production cost
  • local restrictions


Cinema Strenghts

  • involves most senses
  • message can’t be ignored
  • demonstration purposes
  • geographically selective
  • psychographic targeting
  • relaxed atmosphere
  • high quality reproduction
  • an income audience
  • very high impact


Cinema Weaknesses

  • relatively expensive medium
  • limited message
  • lengthy preparation
  • expensive to produce


Digital interactive media are active and immediate. What does this mean?

This means that the advertising process is a two-way communication initiative – the receiver can respond immediately.


The digital environment is characterised by the following:

  • consumers can order products directly and immediately (online)
  • door-to-door delivery
  • consumer online participation (game shows)
  • images can be manipulated for better viewing
  • consumers can find information quickly by using internet browsers (Google)


What do you think is the greatest challenge in the digital environment?

The answer is attention span.

Advertisers have to attract and then maintain the consumer’s attention.


Describe what it means for an advertiser to get "flamed"



Define “niche marketing”

A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused. The market niche defines the product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the price range, production quality and the demographics that is intended to impact. It is also a small market segment.


Define “crowd sourcing"

"Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call. This can take the form of peer-production (when the job is performed collaboratively), but is also often undertaken by sole individuals. The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential labourers."