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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (30):

Define Media Planning

Media planning is the development of a specific and detailed process of reaching the right number of appropriate people, the right number of times, in the right environ- ment, at minimum cost, to achieve the advertised brand’s marketing objectives.


Consider the six key questions or decision making issues that the media planner needs to address during the media planning process:

How many prospects (ie potential buyers) need to be reached?

In which media should the advertisements be placed?

How many times should the prospect see each advertisement?

In which months or seasons should the advertisement appear?

In which markets or regions should the advertisement appear?

How much money should be spent on advertising in each medium?


As in all planning processes, certain parameters need to be drawn up.

In media planning,
these parameters are as follows:



Explain Time

This refers to the proposed duration of the campaign or the period during which
the stated objectives of the campaign will be achieved.


Explain Reach

This refers to the number of persons within the target market who are exposed to the
advertiser’s message at least once. This is usually reflected as a percentage (coverage).


Explain Frequency

This refers to the number of times, on average, that a person within the target market is
supposed to have been exposed to the advertiser’s message.


Explain Impact

This refers to the relative degree of awareness achieved by a particular creative execution
in any given medium.


The four steps in the media planning process are as follows:

STEP 1 – The brief
STEP 2 – The media objectives
STEP 3 – The media strategy
STEP 4 – The media plan


STEP 1 – The brief

The following questions need to be considered during this part of the process:

Is advertising a viable option or should the other elements of the marketing communications mix be considered (promotions, direct marketing, public relations)?

Are the advertising objectives realistic?
Is the target achievable?
Can it be improved or should it perhaps be redefined?
Is there enough, too much or too little money to do the job?
How big is the media budget?
Can media exposure do the job in the set time frame?
Is the creative team “missing any tricks”?
Can the media help?


STEP 2 – The media objectives

These are the goals or results that the media plan is designed to achieve.

Understand that the media objectives are the proposed deliverables or proposed outcomes of the media plan.


STEP 3 – The media strategy

The overall aim of the media strategy is to provide the means or the “how” of achieving the media objective.


STEP 4 – The media plan

In this part of the process, the proverbial ‘’nuts and bolts’’ of the media plan come together:

Details regarding each medium are planned. Media are listed.
Frequency is estimated.
Dates/deadlines are recorded.
Costs are calculated.
Performance is calculated.


The goal of a market analysis is ...

The goal of a market analysis is to identify the threats and opportunities in the external environment and then to see how these relate to the company’s internal environment (strengths and weaknesses).


David Aaker has outlined the following dimensions of a market analysis:

market size (current and future)
market growth rate
market profitability
industry cost structure
distribution channels market trends
key success factors


OTS – Opportunity To See.

This refers to the number of times, on average, that a person within the target market is exposed to the medium carrying the advertiser’s message.


CPM – Cost Per Thousand.

This refers to cost efficiency, which is a monetary figure that indicates the cost of reaching a thousand members of the target audience.


GRP – Gross Rating Points.

These are calculated by multiplying reach by frequency.


The following two levels of media objectives are relevant here:

1 Broad strategic inter-media objectives. These deal specifically with the choice
between different types of media.

2 Schedule of intra-media performance objectives. These are focused more on reach and frequency performance parameters by media type, budget allocation and timing. These objectives set the benchmark for the evaluation of media after the end of the advertising campaign.


The inter-media decision is the actual recommendation to use one media type rather
than another. This decision is subject to the following criteria:

Creative compatibility and media qualities.
Timing of exposure.
Target market exposure.
Track record.
Practical constraints.
Budget constraints.
Competitive frame.


Creative compatibility and media qualities.

Gives direction and form to the creative message. Creates an environment that will increase the probability of the message gaining attention/being understood.


Timing of exposure.

The need to link media exposure to the actual purchase decision. Note product categories and seasonal sales patterns.


Target market exposure.

Regardless of the qualitative aspects of the medium, if the target market is not actually exposed to it, the medium cannot make a contribution to the advertising plan.


Track record.

Consumer not aware that media plans are prepared for 12-month periods. Experience continuous communication programme. Geared to achieve specific objective.


Practical constraints.

Restrictions on choice. Lead times. Availability. Legal restrictions.


Budget constraints.

High costs make some media types inappropriate for small-
budget advertisers.


Competitive frame.

Competitors’ activities create the frame within which the media strategy must be developed.


The following five issues need to be constantly monitored:

Budget. It is the planner’s responsibility to ensure that the media plan remains within budget parameters. Additional production costs may mean that the budget has to be adjusted.

Performance. Objectives must be achieved.

Environment. Communication takes place against the framework of competitive marketing activity. It is never static but always dynamic, requiring constant adaptation.

Creativity. Creative work should be reviewed.

The brand. Brand objectives should be abided by. The overall effect of media exposure
should be monitored.


Traditionally, media departments have been divided into two clearly distinguishable but complementary functions:

Media planning and Media buying.


The functions of media buying have always consisted of ....

Media buying have always consisted of scheduling, booking and administration of the media plan.


Apart from ensuring the streamlined ad- ministration of the media plan, the media buyer can also make a clear and direct impact on the content and direction of the media plan by means of the following:

rate negotiations (performance evaluation, use of historical data)

budget and rate monitoring (volume discounts, campaign monitoring, campaign delivery)

TV scheduling (buying briefs, outlining parameters)