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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (33)
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1

what is a Bronsted-Lowry Acid?

a Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor

2

what is a Bronsted-Lowry Base?

a Bronsted-Lowry Base is a proton acceptor

3

which one is the acid, the base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate base?

4

what is a reaction mechanism?

a reaction mechanism is how the reaction occurs in terms of the (real!) motion of electrons

5

What is Keq? (also formula?)

Keq is the equilibrium constant of a reaction.  It describes the moment when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, in terms of the concentrations of products and reactants.

Keq = [products]

​           [reactants]

6

what is Ka?  (also formula)

Ka is another way of expressing Keq

 

Ka = [products]        without water

        [reactants]

 

7

what's the equation for pKa?

 

pKa = -log(Ka)

8

are lower or higher pKa values more acidic?

lower

9

a stronger acid generates a ___________ conjugate base

weaker

10

a weaker acid generates a ____________ conjugate base

stronger

11

a stronger base generates a _________ conjugate acid

weaker

12

a weaker base generates a ___________ conjugate acid

stronger

13

the equilibrium of a reaction will always favor the __________ acid

weaker

14

the equilibrium of a reaction will always favor the ___________ base

stronger

15

what does this symbol mean?

the position of equilibrium favors the right side

16

a weaker acid has a _________ pKa value

higher

17

a stronger acid has a __________ pKa value

lower

18

reaction equilibrium will favor the side where the pKa (of the acid) is __________

higher

19

why are some reaction equilibriums written ---> or

because they essentially proceed in only one direction

(because of a vast different in pKa of the acids)

20

the ___________ base indicates the side the reaction will favor

more stable

21

a more stable conjugate base indicates a _______ acid, which will drive the reaction _________

stronger

 

towards the conjugate base

22

conjugate bases frequently bear a __________ charge (proton ________)

negative

 

donor

23

conjugate acids frequently bear a __________ charge (proton ________)

positive

 

acceptor

24

How do you determine which base is more stable?

ARIO-S

 

A: ATOM: more massive atoms bearing a negative charge are more stable

     more electronegative atoms bearing a negative charge are more stable

     (mass > electronegativity)

 

R: RESONANCE: resonance makes more stable

 

I: INDUCTION: induction from nearby electronegative atoms makes a base more stable

 

O: ORBITAL: smaller orbitals are more stable when bearing an electron

 

S: STERICALLY HINDERED: the less bulky (# of different connections) base is more stable

25

a Lewis acid is an ____________

electron acceptor

26

a Lewis Base is an ___________

electron donor

27

when do we use Lewis acids/bases?

to discuss acid-base reactions that do not involve hydrogen as an active part of the reaction

 

28

which base is more stable?: explain A

a more massive atom can distribute the - charge over the whole atom, making it more stable

 

mass > (dominant effect) electronegativity

a more electronegative atom is more stable when bearing a - charge (electron)

29

which base is more stable?: explain R

resonance structures are more stable because the charges are delocalized (spread out over entire molecule)

30

which base is more stable?: explain I

induction from nearby (highly electronegative) atoms helps to create a more stable base

 

electronegative atoms induce a stronger partial charge, helping to make the area near the electron more positive, so that it can hold the electron more strongly