Chapter 3 - Cells And Tissues Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy and Physiology Honors > Chapter 3 - Cells And Tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Cells And Tissues Deck (49):
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Apical surface

Surface of an epithelial cell that is exposed to the surface of the body

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Basement Membrane

A thin layer of extracellular material to which epithelial cells are attached in mucosa surfaces

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Epithelial Tissue

One of the primary types of tissues that covers the surface of the body and lines the body cavities, ducts, and vessels. Functions include protection, absorption, filtration and secretion

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Avascular

Having few or no blood vessels

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Cilia

Tiny, hairlike projections on cell surfaces that move in a wavelike manner, walks to move mucus along and keep dust away

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Microvilli

The tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption

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Serous Membrane

Membrane that lines a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body (except for joint cavities)

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Squamous

Cells that are flat and thin

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Cuboidal

Cells that are shaped like a cuboid

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Columnar

Cells that are shaped like columns with small width but tall heights

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Transitional

Stratified epithelium that can contract and expand

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Stratified

Cells that have more than one layer

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Simple

Cells that have only one layer

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Goblet Cells

Individual cells (simple glands) that produce mucus

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Mucous Membrane

Also called the mucosa, membrane that forms the linings of body cavities open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts)

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Endocrine

Ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood

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Exocrine

Glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a body surface (skin or mucosa)

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Extracellular Matrix

Nonliving material in connective tissue consisting of ground substance and fibres that separate the living cells, mostly made up of protein fiber networks

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Connective Tissue

A primary tissue; form and function vary extensively. Functions include protecting, supporting and binding cells

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Osteocytes

Mature bone cells

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Lacunae

Depression or space in bone or cartilage, usually occupied by cells

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Ground Substance

The intercellular material in which the cells and fibers of connective tissue are embedded, composed largely of glycosaminoglycans, metabolites, water and ions, jelly-like substance through the cell

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Osseous

Bone tissue

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Chondrocytes

Mature cartilage cells

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Hyaline cartilage

A cartilage that is transparent, has an ultrafine fiber matrix

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Tight junction

A zip-like connection between two animal cells that no fluid can pass through

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Gap junction

A gap junction is a connection that directly connects the cytoplasm of two cells, allowing various molecules and ions to pass freely, channel-like junction

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Desmosomes

A structure that forms the site of adhesion between two cells, consisting of a dense plate in each adjacent cell separated by a thin layer of extracellular material, button-like junction

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Lamina Propria

A thin layer of loose connective tissue that lines a layer of the epithelium

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Edema

An abnormal accumulation of fluid in body parts or tissues; causes swelling

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Phagocytes

Cells capable of engulfing and digesting particles or cells harmful to the body

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Signet Ring Cells

Cells with a large vacuole, example can be fat cells

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Stroma

The connective, functionally supportive framework of a biological cell, tissue or organ

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Muscle Tissue

Soft tissues that compose muscles in animal bodies specialized with functions to contract or shorten to create movements

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Striations

Cross-striped muscle fibres

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Intercalated Disk

Junctions between two adjacent cardiac cells

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Visceral

Pertaining to the internal part of a structure or the internal organs

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Peristalsis

The waves of contraction seen in tubelike organs; propels substance along the tract

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Nervous Tissue

Tissues that makeup the body's nervous system with the functions of sensing stimuli and sending impulses to different parts of the body

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Neurons

Cells of the nervous system specialized to transmit messages through out the body

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Neuroglia

A special group of supporting cells insulates, supports and protects the neurons, produces myelin; also called glia

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Regeneration

Regeneration replaces the dead or damaged cells with the same type of cell, thus restoring normal function.

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Fibrosis

Fibrosis replaces damaged tissue with scar tissue, which holds the tissue together but does not restore normal function.

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Granulation Tissue

A type of connective tissue that forms at the site of an injury

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Hyperplasia

The increase in the number of cells resulting in the gross enlargement of an organ

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Atrophy

Reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use

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Mitosis

The division of the cell nucleus; often followed by division of the cytoplasm of a cell

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Tissue

A group of cells with the same function

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Histology

The branch of anatomy dealing with the microscopic structure of tissues