Chapter 4 - Skin and Body Membranes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Skin and Body Membranes Deck (73):
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Cutaneous membrane

The skin of the body, a dry membrane that is exposed to air

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Mucous membrane

A type of membrane that lines all body cavities that open up to the exterior

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Serous membrane

A type of membrane that lines all body cavities that are closed to the exterior (except for the dorsal body cavity and joint cavities) and secretes serum

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Serosa

Another name for the serous membrane

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Mucosa

Another name for the mucous membrane

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Parietal layer

A serous layer that lines a specific portion of the wall of the ventral body cavity, and it folds in on itself to form the visceral layer

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Visceral layer

A serous layer that covers the outside of the organs in that cavity

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Serous fluid

A thin clear fluid secreted by the parietal and visceral layers that separate the serous layers

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Peritoneum

The serosa that lines the abdominal cavity and covers its organs

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Pleura

Serosa that surrounds the lungs

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Pericardium

Serosa that surrounds the heart

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Synovial membrane

Membrane composed of soft areolar connective tissue with no epithelium that lines the fibrous capsules surrounding the joints

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Bursae

Small sacs made up of connective tissue located at friction points, especially joints

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Keratin

A tough, insoluble protein found in tissues such as hair, nails, and epidermis of the skin

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Cornified

A process when the skin hardens and becomes horn shaped

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Epidermis

The outer layer of the skin made up of stratified squamous epithelium that is capable of keratinizing, or becoming hard and tough

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Dermis

The skin layer underneath the epidermis made up of mostly dense connective tissue, it is firmly connected with the epidermis and is fairly tear resistant

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Subcutaneous tissue

The layer deep to the dermis that is made up of adipose tissue. It is not considered to be part of the skin, but it does connect the skin to underlying organs and provides a site for nutrient (fat) storage.

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Hypodermis

Another name for the subcutaneous tissue

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Arrector pill muscle

Tiny, smooth muscles attached to to hair follicles; when activated, they cause the hair to stand upright

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Strata

Many layers, plural for stratum

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Stratum basale

The deepest cell layer of the epidermis containing the most adequately nourished epidermal cells. It is also called the stratum germinativum since the cells are constantly dividing

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Stratum spinosum

The fourth layer of the epidermis that contains cells with thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin

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Stratum granulosom

The third layer of the epidermis covered with flattened cells filled with deteriorated organelles and cytoplasms full of keratohyalin granules

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Stratum lucidum

A layer of the epidermis that is only present in skin surfaces that is hairless and extra thick (on the palms of hands or soles of the feet). It is composed of three to five layers of dead, flattened keratinocytes

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Stratum corneum

The outermost layer of the epidermis, usually 20-30 cell layers thick but accounts for three-quarters of the epidermal thickness. It is completely filled with cornified (keratinized) cells

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Keratinocytes

The most common cells in the epidermis found in the stratum basal that produce keratin

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Dandruff

Small pieces of dead skin in a person's hair

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Melanin

A pigment that determines skin color, the more it produces, the darker the skin color

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Melanocytes

Spider shaped cells found chiefly in the stratum basale that produce melanin

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Epidermal Dendritic cells

Cells scattered in the epidermis that are important in alerting and activating immune system cells to a threat such as bacterial or viral invasion

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Merkel cells

Cells found in the epidermal-dermal junction that serve as touch receptors

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Herpes simplex

A viral infection that may produce cold sores, genital inflammation, or conjunctivitis

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Papillary layer

Upper dermal layer that contains capillary loops that provide nutrients and houses pain and touch receptors

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Dermal papillae

Peglike projections on the superior surface of the papillary layer that indent the epidermis above known as finger prints

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Reticular layer

Deepest skin layer that contains irregularly arranged connective tissue fibers, blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, also deep pressure receptors called lamellar corpuscles

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Lamellar corpuscles

Deep pressure and vibration receptors in the reticular layer

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Decubitus ulcers

Ulcers caused by not turning regularly in bed or dragged and pulled across the bed constantly

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Botox

A toxin produced by the bacteria that causes botulism, a dreaded form of food poisoning to help with treating eye muscle disorders and softening the skin

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Carotene

An orange-yellow pigment located mainly in the stratum corneum plentiful in carrots and other orange, deep yellow, or leafy green vegetables

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Cyanosis

A condition when a person can't get enough oxygen that can cause the blood or skin to appear blue

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Erythema

Reddened skin from excess blood that may indicate embarrassment (blushing), fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy

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Pallor

Pale skin that can be caused by emotional stress (fear, anger, and others) or conditions such as anemia, low blood pressure, or impaired blood flow into the area

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Jaundice

An abnormal yellow skin tone that may signify a liver disorder in which excess bile pigments are absorbed into the blood

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Hemophilia

A bleeding disorder caused by absence of a blood clotting factor

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Sebum

The oily secretion of sebaceous glands (oil glands) that lubricates and keeps the skin soft and moist and prevents the hair from becoming brittle, contains chemical that can kill bacteria

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Apocrine glands

Large glands found in the axillary and genital areas that secrete fatty acids into the hair follicles, starts functioning during puberty

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Sudoriferous glands

the glands that produce a saline solution called sweat, also called sweat glands

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Seborrhea

Overactivity of the sebaceous glands, cradle cap in infants

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Acne

An active infection of the sebaceous glands accompanied by pimples on the skin

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Hair

A flexible epithelial structure produced by hair follicles

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Hair follicle

A sac from which a hair grows and into which the sebaceous glands open

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Lunule

The region over the thickened nail matrix that appears as a white crescent

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Rule of nines

A method that divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9 percent of the total body surface area, plus an additional area that surrounds the genitals that represents 1 percent of body surface area to calculate how much the body surface is burned

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Partial thickness burns

second degree burn that burns through the surface of the papillary layer

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Full thickness burns

Third-degree burn, it burns all the way through the dermis

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Athletes foot

An itchy, red, peeling condition of the skin between the toes, resulting from fungus infection

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Tines pedis

Another term for Athletes Foot

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Boils

Inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands (common on the dorsal neck) caused by bacterial infection (often Staphylococcus aureus)

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Carbuncles

Inflammation of clusters of hair follicles and sebaceous glands (common on the dorsal neck)

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Dermatitis

Itching, redness, and swelling of the skin caused by the skin's exposure to chemicals that provoke allergic reactions

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Impetigo

Pink, water-filled, raised lesions (common around the mouth and nose) that develop a yellow crust and eventually rupture, caused by a highly contagious staphylococcus infection

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Psoriasis

A chronic condition characterized by overproduction of skin cells that results in reddened epidermal lesions covered with dry, silvery scales that itch, burn, crack and sometimes bleed

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Basal cell carcinoma

The least malignant and most common skin cancer

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Squamous cell carcinoma

A type of skin cancer arises from the cells of the stratum spinosum that appears as a shallow ulcer with a firm, raised border, grows quickly

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Malignant melanoma

A deadly and rare type of cancer of melanocytes

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ABCD rule

A rule that is used to check for skin cancer, a stands for asymmetry, b is for border, c is for color, d is for diameter

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Lanugo

A fine, soft, downy type of hair developed by a five to six months infant that will usually be shed after birth

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Vernix caseosa

The white, cheesy-looking substance produced by the sebaceous gland to protect the baby's skin while it is floating in its water-filled sac inside the mother

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Milia

Accumulations of the sebaceous glands that appear as small, white spots on the baby's nose and forehead

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Alopecia

Hair thinning and baldness that occur in humans' hair by the age of 50 because the immune system is attacking the hair follicles

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Vellues

Colorless and tiny hairs caused by the degeneration of hair follicles

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Ringworm

A fungal disease that can cause graying and hair loss