Chapter 1 - Orientation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Orientation Deck (53):
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1. Anatomy

The study of structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another

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2. Physiology

The study of how the body and its parts function

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3. Digestion

The process of breaking down foods chemically and mechanically

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4. Metabolism

The physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy

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5. Excretion

The elimination of waste products from the body

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6. Reproduction

A state when the sperm combines with the egg to create a new life

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7. Homeostasis

A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body

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8. Negative feedback mechanisms

Feedbacks that cause the stimulus to reduce its functions or return to its original state

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9. Positive feedback mechanism

Feedbacks that cause the stimulus to speed up its functions

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10. Anatomical position

A position when a body stands erect with the palms and arms facing outward

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11. Medial

Toward the midline of the body

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12. Lateral

Away from the midline of the body

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13. Proximal

Toward the attached end of a limb or origin of a structure

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14. Distal

Farthest from the point of attachment of a limb or origin of a structure

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15. Superficial

Toward the surface of the body

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16. Deep

Toward the inside of the skin, under the surface

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17. Sagittal

A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left portions

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18. Cronal or Frontal

A longitudinal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

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19. Transverse

A plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts

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20. Thoracic cavity

Area of where the chest is

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21. Diaphragm

A muscle that separates the thoracic cavity(chest) from the abdominopelvic cavity

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22. Mediastinum

The region of the thoracic cavity between the lungs

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23. Abdominopelvic

A body cavity that contains the abdomen and the pelvis and all of their organs

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24. Umbilical region

The abdominal region that is most central in location, surrounded by the umbilicus, belly button

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25. Epigastric region

An area of the upper and central part of the abdomen

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26. Axillary

Area of where the armpit is

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27. Carpal

Area of where the wrist is

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28. Coxal

Area of where the hip is

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29. Orbital

Eye area

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30. Patellar

The area of your kneecap

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31. Lumbar

An area of the lower part of the back

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32. Plantar

The sole of a foot

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33. Atmospheric Pressure

The force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air

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34. Effector

An organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings or stimuli

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35. Set Point

Any one of a number of qualities which the body tries to keep at a particular level

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36. Receptor

A peripheral nerve ending specialized for response to particular types of stimuli, sensor that responses to changes in the environment

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37. Homeostatic imbalance

A situation of when the body's homeostasis or internal functions is disturbed, and diseases become more likely to happen.

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38. Cranial cavity

Area of where the brain is

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39. Inguinal

Area where thigh meets body trunk; groin

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40. Calcaneal

Heel of foot

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41. Popliteal

Posterior knee area

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42. Caudal

Toward the tail

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Maintaining boundaries

Maintaining boundaries means the inside of the body is distinct from the outside, and bacteria is kept out of the body by the integumentary system

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Movement

Using the muscles and bones of our body to perform a variety of actions including walking, jumping, running etc

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Responsiveness

The ability to sense changes around the environment and then react to them

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Digestion

The process of breaking down digested food into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the blood

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Excretion

The process of removing waste products from the body

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Reproduction

The production of offspring

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Growth

Increase in size and body weight

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Nutrients

Nutrients come from the food we eat. It provides us with chemicals that can be used for energy and cell building.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is an important part for gas exchanges in our body system. The respiratory system turns the oxygen into energy that can be used for our cells and in turn carbon dioxide is released.

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Water

Water accounts for 60 to 80 percent of our body weight. Water is a vital part of our life because not only it keeps us from becoming dehydrated, it also provides the fluid that is needed to excrete out our body wastes

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Body temperature

A normal body temperature must be maintained in order to keep our metabolic and chemical reactions at a normal rate.