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Carboxyl group

Carboxyl Group Definition: The carboxyl group is an organic functional group consisting of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group.

The carboxyl group is commonly written as -C(=O)OH or -COOH.

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Amino group

Amino group, in chemistry, functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom attached by single bonds to hydrogen atoms,

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Isomer

In chemistry, isomers (/ˈaɪsəmərz/; from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos = "equal", méros = "part") are molecules with the same chemical formula but different chemical structures. That is, isomers contain the same number of atoms of each element, but have different arrangements of their atoms in space.

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Monomer

A monomer (/ˈmɒnəmər/ MON-ə-mər) (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer.

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Monosaccharide

the most basic units of carbohydrates. They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose) and galactose.

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Disaccharide

A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. It is formed when two sugars are joined together and a molecule of water is removed. For example, milk sugar (lactose) is made from glucose and galactose whereas cane sugar (sucrose) is made from glucose and fructose.

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Sucrose

Glucose, fructose

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Maltose

Digesting starch

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Lactose

Glucose, galactose

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Ribose


Ribose, found in RNA, is a "normal" sugar, with one oxygen atom attached to each carbon atom.

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Deoxyribose


Deoxyribose, found in DNA, is a modified sugar, lacking one oxygen atom (hence the name "deoxy"). This difference of one oxygen atom is important for the enzymes that recognize DNA and RNA, because it allows these two molecules to be easily distinguished inside organisms.

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Polysaccharide

Complex carbs, Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched.

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Starch

From plants. Polymer of α glucose

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Carbohydrates

Sugars and polymers of sugars

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Lipids

Nonpolar molecules dissolve in water

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Proteins

Polymers of amino acids

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Nuclei acids

RNA, DNA polymers of nucleotides

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Amylose

Branched starch

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Amylin

Peptide hormone

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Cellulose

Plants. Polymer of β glucose

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Glycogen

Animals. Polymer of alpha glucose

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Triglycerides

Fats and oils. Each consist of three fatty acid's bonded to a glycerol. Functions as energy storage. Mostly nonpolar

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Lipid

Mostly nonpolar molecules

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Phospholipids

Each consist of two fatty acids and a phosphate group bonded to a glycerol. Used to build cellular membranes and all organisms but Archaia

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Steroid

Four hydrocarbon rings fused together nothing but hydrogen and carbon. Don't dissolve in H2O

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RNA

Shape variable depending on type. Messenger, ribosomal, transfer. Single stranded. Assembled amino acids to form polypeptides/proteins

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DNA

Double helix. Acts as a template for formation of RNA (transcription)

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ATP

Shuttles energy within cell. Energy carrier/intermediate. Fires neurons, muscle contractions, etc, etc, etc

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Fatty acids

Fatty acids are the building blocks of the fat in our bodies and in the food we eat. During digestion, the body breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can then be absorbed into the blood. Fatty acid molecules are usually joined together in groups of three, forming a molecule called a triglyceride.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. The building blocks of nucleic acids, nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group.

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Amylopectin

Amylopectin is a soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α glycosidic bonds.

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Phosphidiester bonds

In DNA and RNA, the phosphodiester bond is the linkage between the 3' carbon atom of one sugar molecule and the 5' carbon atom of another, deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA. Strong covalent bonds form between the phosphate group and two 5-carbon ring carbohydrates (pentoses) over two ester bonds.

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Purine

A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. Purines, which include substituted purines and their tautomers, are the most widely occurring nitrogen-containing heterocycle in nature.[1]

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Adenine

Adenine /ˈædɨnɨn/ (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA.[2] The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA.

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mRNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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rRNA

In molecular biology, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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tRNA

A transfer RNA for is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length,[2] that serves as the physical link between the nucleotide sequence of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and the amino acid sequence of proteins. It does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell (ribosome) as directed by a three-nucleotide sequence (codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA).

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Guanine

Guanine /ˈɡwɑːnɨn/ (G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Cytosine

Cytosine /ˈsaɪtɵsɨn/ (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Pyrimidline

Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.[2] One of the three diazines (six-membered heterocyclics with two nitrogen atoms in the ring), it has the nitrogens at positions 1 and 3 in the ring.[3]

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Thymine

Thymine /ˈθaɪmɨn/ (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine.

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Uracil

Uracil /ˈjʊərəsɪl/ (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Base-pairing

The pair of nitrogenous bases that connects the complementary strands of DNA or of double-stranded RNA and consists of a purine linked by hydrogen bonds to a pyrimidine: adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine in DNA, and adenine-uracil and guanine-cytosine in RNA.

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NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. Oxidized form of NAD

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FAD

In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor involved in several important reactions in metabolism. FAD can exist in two different redox states, which it converts between by accepting or donating electrons.

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Amino acid

Amino acids (/əˈmiːnoʊ/, /əˈmaɪnoʊ/, or /ˈæmɪnoʊ/) are biologically important organic compounds composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

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Peptide bond

A peptide bond (amide bond) is a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.

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Polypeptide

Polypeptides are chains of amino acids. Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide molecules. The amino acids are linked covalently by peptide bonds. The graphic on the right shows how three amino acids are linked by peptide bonds into a tripeptide.

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α helix

The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-coiled or spiral conformation (helix) in which every backbone N-H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C=O group of the amino acid four residues earlier (i+4 \rightarrow i hydrogen bonding).

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β sheet

The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins. It is less common than the alpha helix. Beta sheets consist of beta strands connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet.

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Protein subunit

In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.

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Chaperone protein

In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures. Chaperones are present when the macromolecules perform their normal biological functions and have correctly completed the processes of folding and/or assembly.

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Motif

A recurring pattern of protein folding, e.g. a homeobox

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Denaturation

Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent

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Polyunsaturated

Polyunsaturated fats are lipids in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds. Polyunsaturated fat can be found mostly in nuts, seeds, fish, algae, leafy greens, and krill.

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Glycerol

Glycerol /ˈɡlɪsərɒl/[4] (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol (sugar alcohol) compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. The glycerol backbone is central to all lipids known as triglycerides. Glycerol is sweet-tasting and generally considered non-toxic.

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Terpene

Terpenes (/ˈtɜrpiːn/ tur-peen) are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers,[1] though also by some insects

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Prostaglandin

The prostaglandins are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone‑like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals.