Chapter 4 - Cell Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Cell Structure Deck (67):
1

Area of a prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that contains the genome in the form of DNA compacted with protein

Nuleoid

2

In eukaryotic cells, the membranous organelle that houses the chromosomal DNS

Nucleus

3

The bounding structure of the eukaryotic nucleus. Composed of two phospholipid bilayer's with the outer when connected to the endoplasmic reticulum

Nuclear Envelope

4

The material within a cell, excluding the nucleus; the protoplasm

Cytoplasm

5

Special as part of a cell; literally, a small cytoplasmic organ

Organelle

6

In eukaryotes, the site of rRNA synthesis; aspherical body composed chiefly of rRNA in the process of being transcribed from multiple copies of rRNA jeans

Nucleolus

7

One of a multitude of tiny but complex openings in the nuclear envelope to allow select a passage of proteins and nucleic acid into and out of the nucleus

Nuclear pore

8

The fluid portion of the cytoplasm; it contains dissolved organic molecules and ions

Cytosol

9

In the bacteria, a gelatinous layer surrounding the cell wall

Capsule

10

The rigid, outmost we are at the cells of plants, some protein, and some bacteria; the cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane

Cell wall

11

A large, membrane-bound sac found in plant cells proteins, pigments, and waste materials and is involved in water balance

Central Vacuole

12

A network of protein microfilaments and microtubules within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cell that maintains the shape of the cell, anchors it's organelles, and is involved in animal cell motility

Cytoskeleton

13

The vehicle by which really Terry information he's physically transmitted from one generation to the next; in eukaryotes, each chromosome consists of a single linear DNA molecule and associated proteins

Chromosome

14

A small collecting vessel that pinches off from the end of a gogli body to form a transport materials through the cytoplasm

Cisterns

15

The complex of DNA and proteins up with eukaryotic chromosomes are composed; Highly uncoiled and diffuse in interphase nuclei, condensing to form the visible chromosomes in prophase

Chromitin

16

A cytoplasmic organelle located outside the nuclear membrane, identical in structure to a basal body; found in animal cells and in flagellated cells of other groups; divides and organize a spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis

Centriole

17

Short cellular projections from the surface of a eukaryotic cell, having the same internal structure of microtubules and a 9+2 arrangement as seen in a flagellum

Cilia

18

A folded extension of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. Mitochondria contain numerous.

Crista

19

Ecella like organelle present and algae and plants that contains chlorophyll and usually other pigments and carries out photosynthesis

Chloroplasts

20

A long, threadlike structure protruding from the surface of a cell and used in locomotion

Flagellum

21

The protein composing bacterial flagella, which allow a cell to move through an aqueous environment

Flagellin

22

Extensions of a bacterial cell enabling him to transfer genetic materials from one individual to another or to it here to substrates

Pili

23

The molecular machine that carries out protein synthesis; the most complicated aggregation of proteins in the cell, also contain three different rRNA molecules

Ribosome

24

A component of the cell wall of bacteria, consisting of carb polymers linked by protein cross bridges

Peptidoglycan

25

A system of connected membranous compartments found in eukaryotic cells

Endomembrane system

26

A small intracellular membrane bounded sac in which various substances are transported or stored

Vesicle

27

Internal membrane system that forms a netlike array of channels and interconnections within the cytoplasm and interconnections within of eukaryotic cells.

Endoplasmic reticulum

28

Structure near the inner nuclear membrane and the peripheral chromatin. It is composed of lamins, which are also present in the nuclear interior, and lamin-associated proteins.

Nuclear lamina

29

"Bounded opening."/Passage through which blood flows inside a blood vessel, and the passage through which material moves inside the intestine during digestion.

lumen/cisternal space

30

protein molecule modified withing the Golgi complex by having a short sugar chain (polysaccharide) attached.

glycoprotein

31

Regions of ER w/ relatively few bound ribosomes

Smooth ER

32

Gets name from pebbly surface appearance. Primarily composed of flattened sacs, the surfaces bumpy with ribosomes.

Rough ER

33

Flattened stacks of membranes form this complex of cisternae. Functions: collection, packaging and distribution of molecules synth. at one location & used at another.

Golgi apparatus

34

Front, or receiving end of golgi apparatus. Located near ER.

cis face

35

Material exit of golgi complex.

trans face

36

Moves molecules between locations in cell. Eg: moves proteins from rough ER to golgi apparatus.

transport vesicle

37

Contain materials that are to be excreted from the cell. Dispose of wastes. Promotes cell function.

secretory vesicle

38

Membrane-bounded degestive vesicles. Components of endomembrane system. Arise from Golgi Apparatus. Rapidly break down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids & carbs.

Lysosomes

39

Lysosomes are activated by fusing with a food vesicle produced by...

Phagocytosis

40

Enzyme-baring, membrane enclosed vesicles. Found in plants, animals, fungi & protists. Organizes metabolism in eukaryotes.

microbody

41

Type of microbody which contains ezymes involved in oxidation of fatty acids

perozisome

42

Specialized membrane-bounded structures in plants. Large membranous sacs. Stores solutes, regs. H2O balance, helps cells maintain size, etc.

vacuoles

43

Tubular or sausage-shaped organelles found in all types of eukaryotic cells. Bounded by two membranes w/ matrix. Metabolize sugar to produce ATP. "Powerhouse."

Mitochondrion

44

In mitochondria, the solution in the interior space surrounded by cristae that contains the enzymes and other molecules involved in oxidative respiration.

Matrix

45

Membrane surrounding the central vacuole in plant cells that contains water channels; helps maintain cell's osmotic balance

tonoplast

46

Outer compartment of a mitochondrion that lies between the two membranes.

intermembrane space

47

Stacked colums of flattened, interconnected disks (thylakoids) that are part of thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts

grana

48

In chloroplasts, a complex, organized internal membrane composed of flattened disks, which contain the photosystems involved in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis

Thylakoid

49

In plants, a minute opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems; water passes out of a plant mainly through these.

stroma

50

In plant cells, a colorless plastid in which starch grains are stored; usually found in cells not exposed to light.

leucoplast

51

A plant organelle called a plastid that specializes in storing starch.

amyloplast

52

Theory that proposes that eukaryotic cells evolved from a symbiosis between different species of prokaryotes

endosymbiosis

53

Long fibers composed of two protein chains loosely twined together like two strands of pearls. Polar. Responsible for cellular movements.

actin filaments; "pearls" = actins

54

Durable element of cytoskeleton. in animal cells. Tough, fibrous protein molecules twined together in overlapping arrangement.

intermediate filamens

55

Largest of cytoskeletal elements. Hollow tubes composed of ring of 13 protein protofilaments. Organize the cytoplasm and are responsible for moving materials within cell.

microtubules

56

Microtubules are assembled from...

α- and β-tubulin dimers

57

Region surrounding pair of centrioles in almost all animal cells.

centrosome

58

Self-reproducing, cylindrical, cytoplasmic organelle composed of nine triplets of microtubules from which flagella or cilia rise

basal body

59

A protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells. Move along microtubule filaments, and are powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Kinesin

60

A motor protein (also called molecular motor) in cells which converts the chemical energy contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement.

Dynein

61

Collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

Extracellular matrix (ECM

62

Protein complexes that occur at cell–cell junctions. A cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton.

Adhesive junction

63

Type of anchoring junction that links adjacent cells by connecting their cytoskeletons with cadherin proteins.

Desmosome

64

Junction between adjacent animal cells that allows the passage of materials between the cells.

Gap junction

65

In plants, cytoplasmic connections between adjacent cells.

plasmodesmata

66

region of actual fusion of plasma membranes between two adjacent animal cells that prevents materials from leaking through the tissue.

tight junction

67

9+2 structure

A eukaryotic flagellum is a bundle of nine fused pairs of microtubule doublets surrounding two central single microtubules. The so-called "9 + 2" structure is characteristic of the core of the eukaryotic flagellum called an axoneme.