Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Cell Structure Deck (67):
Area of a prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that contains the genome in the form of DNA compacted with protein
In eukaryotic cells, the membranous organelle that houses the chromosomal DNS
The bounding structure of the eukaryotic nucleus. Composed of two phospholipid bilayer's with the outer when connected to the endoplasmic reticulum
The material within a cell, excluding the nucleus; the protoplasm
Special as part of a cell; literally, a small cytoplasmic organ
In eukaryotes, the site of rRNA synthesis; aspherical body composed chiefly of rRNA in the process of being transcribed from multiple copies of rRNA jeans
One of a multitude of tiny but complex openings in the nuclear envelope to allow select a passage of proteins and nucleic acid into and out of the nucleus
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm; it contains dissolved organic molecules and ions
In the bacteria, a gelatinous layer surrounding the cell wall
The rigid, outmost we are at the cells of plants, some protein, and some bacteria; the cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane
A large, membrane-bound sac found in plant cells proteins, pigments, and waste materials and is involved in water balance
A network of protein microfilaments and microtubules within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cell that maintains the shape of the cell, anchors it's organelles, and is involved in animal cell motility
The vehicle by which really Terry information he's physically transmitted from one generation to the next; in eukaryotes, each chromosome consists of a single linear DNA molecule and associated proteins
A small collecting vessel that pinches off from the end of a gogli body to form a transport materials through the cytoplasm
The complex of DNA and proteins up with eukaryotic chromosomes are composed; Highly uncoiled and diffuse in interphase nuclei, condensing to form the visible chromosomes in prophase
A cytoplasmic organelle located outside the nuclear membrane, identical in structure to a basal body; found in animal cells and in flagellated cells of other groups; divides and organize a spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis
Short cellular projections from the surface of a eukaryotic cell, having the same internal structure of microtubules and a 9+2 arrangement as seen in a flagellum
A folded extension of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. Mitochondria contain numerous.
Ecella like organelle present and algae and plants that contains chlorophyll and usually other pigments and carries out photosynthesis
A long, threadlike structure protruding from the surface of a cell and used in locomotion
The protein composing bacterial flagella, which allow a cell to move through an aqueous environment
Extensions of a bacterial cell enabling him to transfer genetic materials from one individual to another or to it here to substrates
The molecular machine that carries out protein synthesis; the most complicated aggregation of proteins in the cell, also contain three different rRNA molecules
A component of the cell wall of bacteria, consisting of carb polymers linked by protein cross bridges
A system of connected membranous compartments found in eukaryotic cells
A small intracellular membrane bounded sac in which various substances are transported or stored
Internal membrane system that forms a netlike array of channels and interconnections within the cytoplasm and interconnections within of eukaryotic cells.
Structure near the inner nuclear membrane and the peripheral chromatin. It is composed of lamins, which are also present in the nuclear interior, and lamin-associated proteins.
"Bounded opening."/Passage through which blood flows inside a blood vessel, and the passage through which material moves inside the intestine during digestion.
protein molecule modified withing the Golgi complex by having a short sugar chain (polysaccharide) attached.
Regions of ER w/ relatively few bound ribosomes
Gets name from pebbly surface appearance. Primarily composed of flattened sacs, the surfaces bumpy with ribosomes.
Flattened stacks of membranes form this complex of cisternae. Functions: collection, packaging and distribution of molecules synth. at one location & used at another.
Front, or receiving end of golgi apparatus. Located near ER.
Material exit of golgi complex.
Moves molecules between locations in cell. Eg: moves proteins from rough ER to golgi apparatus.
Contain materials that are to be excreted from the cell. Dispose of wastes. Promotes cell function.
Membrane-bounded degestive vesicles. Components of endomembrane system. Arise from Golgi Apparatus. Rapidly break down proteins, nucleic acids, lipids & carbs.
Lysosomes are activated by fusing with a food vesicle produced by...
Enzyme-baring, membrane enclosed vesicles. Found in plants, animals, fungi & protists. Organizes metabolism in eukaryotes.
Type of microbody which contains ezymes involved in oxidation of fatty acids
Specialized membrane-bounded structures in plants. Large membranous sacs. Stores solutes, regs. H2O balance, helps cells maintain size, etc.
Tubular or sausage-shaped organelles found in all types of eukaryotic cells. Bounded by two membranes w/ matrix. Metabolize sugar to produce ATP. "Powerhouse."
In mitochondria, the solution in the interior space surrounded by cristae that contains the enzymes and other molecules involved in oxidative respiration.
Membrane surrounding the central vacuole in plant cells that contains water channels; helps maintain cell's osmotic balance
Outer compartment of a mitochondrion that lies between the two membranes.
Stacked colums of flattened, interconnected disks (thylakoids) that are part of thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts
In chloroplasts, a complex, organized internal membrane composed of flattened disks, which contain the photosystems involved in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
In plants, a minute opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems; water passes out of a plant mainly through these.
In plant cells, a colorless plastid in which starch grains are stored; usually found in cells not exposed to light.
A plant organelle called a plastid that specializes in storing starch.
Theory that proposes that eukaryotic cells evolved from a symbiosis between different species of prokaryotes
Long fibers composed of two protein chains loosely twined together like two strands of pearls. Polar. Responsible for cellular movements.
actin filaments; "pearls" = actins
Durable element of cytoskeleton. in animal cells. Tough, fibrous protein molecules twined together in overlapping arrangement.
Largest of cytoskeletal elements. Hollow tubes composed of ring of 13 protein protofilaments. Organize the cytoplasm and are responsible for moving materials within cell.
Microtubules are assembled from...
α- and β-tubulin dimers
Region surrounding pair of centrioles in almost all animal cells.
Self-reproducing, cylindrical, cytoplasmic organelle composed of nine triplets of microtubules from which flagella or cilia rise
A protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells. Move along microtubule filaments, and are powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A motor protein (also called molecular motor) in cells which converts the chemical energy contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement.
Collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Extracellular matrix (ECM
Protein complexes that occur at cell–cell junctions. A cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton.
Type of anchoring junction that links adjacent cells by connecting their cytoskeletons with cadherin proteins.
Junction between adjacent animal cells that allows the passage of materials between the cells.
In plants, cytoplasmic connections between adjacent cells.
region of actual fusion of plasma membranes between two adjacent animal cells that prevents materials from leaking through the tissue.