Chapter 3 - Design Principles, Elements and Style Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Design Principles, Elements and Style Deck (56):
1

principles of design (6)

1. scale
2. proportion
3. balance
4. rhythm
5. emphasis
6. harmony (variety and unity)

2

design principles definition

the abstract concepts that constitute the theory, bylaws, or governing ideas that determine the success of a design, each element can be evaluated by these

3

scale

overall size, such as the largeness or smallness of a room, object or pattern

4

proportion

size relationship or ratio of parts to whole, such as the size of a chair in relation to the size of its arms

5

balance

equilibrium achieved by arranging components symmetrically, asymmetrically or radially

6

rhythm

flow of elements, usually organized according to a theme such as repetition or alternation, progression or gradation, transition, opposition or contrast, or radiation

7

emphasis

enhancement that produces a point of interest or focal point in a design

8

harmony

compatibility of elements to create a pleasing whole, achieved through unity and variety

9

shape

open and closed areas, space may be positive (filled) or negative (open)

10

space

open and closed areas, space may be positive (filled) or negative (open)

11

shape

two-dimensional outline, often seen as a geometric figure such as a rectangle or triangle

12

form

three-dimensional shapes such as a cute, cone or sphere

13

mass

weight, density or relative solidity of a form, mass may be actual or visual

14

line

connection between two points, line may be vertical, horizontal, angular or curved

15

texture

smoothness or roughness of a surface, texture may be read visually or through touch

16

pattern

arrangement of motifs in a repetitive or varied order, a small pattern may be read visually as texture

17

light

natural, artificial, or a combination of both, light affects the appearance of all other elements of design

18

color

huge that vary from light to dark and from intense to dull and can be mixed with one another and combined in color schemes, color is the most personal and emotional of the elements of design

19

floor plan scale

1/4, 1/8, or 1/16 inch usually equals 1 ft

20

golden mean

a line from the ancient Egyptians and then Greeks that visually divides an object into two unequal but harmonious parts, falls somewhere between one-half and one-third (vertically or horizontally)

21

golden section

proportions of parts to one another and to the whole, often around the golden mean, ex: 3:5, 8:13, 13:21

22

golden rectangle

sides of rectangles are based off the golden section

23

equilibrium

the arrangement of objects physically or visually to reach a state of stability and poise

24

types of balance (3)

1. symmetric or formal balance
2. asymmetric or informal balance
3. radial balance

25

symmetric balance

aka formal, bisymmetrical or passive balance, creates a mirror image around a central point

26

asymmetric balance

aka informal, active, optical or occult balance, can be accomplished by putting dissimilar objects at varying distances from a center point or placing objects of similar visual weight or form being balanced at an equal distance from a center line

27

radial balance

based on the circle, things surrounding a central point in a circle

28

types of rhythm (5)

1. repetition and alternation
2. progression or gradation
3. transition
4. opposition or contrast
5. radiation

29

repetition

establishes rhythm through the repetitive use of an element of design, provides continuity and flow of rhythm, unity and sameness

30

alteration

the sequence of two or more components by which the eye can follow a rhythmic pattern

31

progression or gradation

shapes progressing from small to large or large to small

32

transition

leads the eye without interruption from one point to another, can be a continuous line like crown molding or arched doorway

33

opposition or contrast

abrupt change that from interesting, repetitive rhythm, 90-degree angles, patterns or varied shapes

34

radiation

radiating concentric or spikelike lines or forms

35

focal point

an area visually important enough to draw and hold attention, arrange furniture to face the focal point

36

unity

oneness and uniformity, the goal that is being sought, using selections with the same feeling

37

variety

absence of monotony or sameness, healthy positive influence that brings about vitality, interest and diversity

38

ottomans

oversized footstools

39

massing

grouping tougher components to create a unified "group mass"

40

types of lines (3)

straight, angular, curved

41

psychological effects of straight lines (2)

1. horizontal lines: weighty, secure, restful, repose
2. vertical lines: imposing, lofty, solid, formal, restrained

42

psychological effects of angular lines (2)

1. diagonal lines: action, movement, interest, angular stability
2. zigzag lines: exciting, lively, rhythmic movement

43

psychological effects of curved lines (3)

1. curved or circular lines: soft, humanizing, repetitive tempo, gracefulness
2. flowing lines: gentle movement, growth, linear development
3. tightly curved or busy lines: playful activity, zest, lively visual stimulation

44

relief

high and low areas that produce highlight and shadow

45

combining patterns (4)

1. the placement of emphasis
2. the character of the pattern
3. the color scheme
4. the scale of the patterns to be combined

46

color values

the relative lightness or darkness of the color hues

47

color intensity

the brightness versus the dullness of a color hue

48

structural design

when the design is inartistic to the structure and the form indicates the function of the piece

49

ergonomics

the study of the relationships between, on the one hand, human form and movements and, on the other hand, furniture and other products people use

50

criteria for structural design (4)

1. must be simple
2. is unadorned
3. the function of the piece must be apparent
4. a structural piece must be well proportioned to be good design

51

structural design

the design cannot be removed from the structure without destroying both the design and the purpose

52

decorative design

aka "applied" or "ornamental" design

53

types of decorative design (4)

1. Naturalistic design
2. Conventional design
3. Geometric design
4. Abstract design

54

power of discernment

the ability to recognize and appreciate fine design wherever it is found

55

finding a personal style (7)

1. pare back
2. rearrange what you already have
3. think "need" not "want"
4. simplify and organize
5. cultivate creativity
6. personalize
7. cultivate good taste

56

elements of design (9)

1. space
2. shape
3. form
4. mass
5. line
6. texture
7. pattern
8. light
9. color