Chapter 3: Energy, Chemical Reactions, and Cellular Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Energy, Chemical Reactions, and Cellular Respiration Deck (237):
1

Defined as the capacity to do work.

energy

2

Energy differs from matter in that it has no mass and ________.

does not take up space.

3

What are the two classes of energy?

potential energy and kinetic energy

4

The energy of position or stored energy

Potential energy

5

The energy of motion

Kinetic energy

6

Potential energy can be _______ or changed to kinetic energy and vice versa.

converted

7

Water at the top of dam has _____ energy because of its position; when the water falls over the dam it now has _____ energy.

potential, kinetic

8

Potential energy is exhibited in cells of living organisms when a _______ exists across the plasma membrane, which is the boundary between the inside and outside of a cell.

concentration gradients

9

The movement of NA+ from a high concentration outside the cell to a low concentration inside the cell is an example of ______ energy.

kinetic

10

Movements of electrons from high-energy shells have ____ energy.

kinetic

11

Energy that is stored in a molecule's chemical bonds, and is the most important form of energy in the human body.

Chemical

12

The chemical bonds of all molecules have ____.

chemical energy

13

Three important molecules in the human body function primarily in chemical energy storage: ____, _____, and _____.

triglycerides, glucose, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

14

Triglycerides are involved in the ________ in adipose connective tissue.

long term energy storage

15

ATP is stored in _____ in limited amounts and is produced continuously and used immediately for cells' energy required process.

all cells

16

Chemical energy is used for the energy-requiring process of movement, _____ and ________.

synthesis of molecules, establishment of concentration gradients

17

Forms of kinetic energy.

electric, mechanical, sound, radiant

18

This energy is the movement of charged particles.

electrical energy

19

This energy is exhibited by an object in motion due to an applied force.

mechanical energy

20

This energy occurs when the compression of molecules that move in a solid, liquid, or gas is caused by a vibrating object.

sound energy

21

The energy of electromagnetic waves traveling in the universe.

radiant energy

22

The kinetic energy associated with random motion of atoms, ions, or molecules.

heat

23

Gamma rays have the ____ amount of radiant energy, and radio waves have the ____.

highest, lowest

24

Muscle contraction is an example of what type of energy?

mechanical energy

25

The study of energy transformations.

thermodynamics

26

States that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed or converted from one form to another

First law of thermodynamics

27

One of the functions of muscle tissue is to produce ___ that keeps the body warm

heat

28

States that every time energy is transformed from one form to another, some of that energy is converted to heat.

Second law of thermodynamics

29

The collective term for all biochemical reactions in living organisms.

metabolism

30

When chemical bonds in an existing molecular structure are broken and new ones formed to produce a different structure.

chemical reaction

31

When chemical structures are changed , summary of their changes is written as a __________.

chemical equation

32

The substrates, or substances, that are present prior to the start of the chemical reaction. Generally on the left side of the equation.

reactants

33

Substances that are formed by the subsequent chemical reaction and they are generally written on the right side of the equation.

products

34

A + B -----> C
What are A + B
What are C

the reactants
the products

35

In a __________ the number of elements on one side of the reaction is equal to the number on the other side.

balanced chemical equation

36

The three different criteria that chemical reactions are classified into.

changes in chemical structure
changes in chemical energy
whether the reaction is irreversible or reversible

37

The general categories of chemical reactions based on changes in chemical structure include ______, ______, and ______.

decomposition
synthesis
exchange reactions

38

The initial large molecule is digested or broken down into smaller structures.

decomposition

39

All the decomposition reactions in the body are collectively referred to as either _________ or _______.

catabolism or catabolic reactions

40

Occurs when two or more atoms, ion, or molecules are combined to form a larger chemical structure as existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed.

synthesis reaction

41

The collective term for all synthesis reactions in the body.

anabolism or anabolic reactions

42

AB ------> A + B
is an example of what type of chemical reaction

decomposition

43

When atoms, molecules, ions, or electrons are exchanged between two chemical structures.

exchange reaction

44

A + B ------> AB is an example of what type of chemical reaction?

synthesis reaction

45

AB + C ------> is an example of what type of chemical reaction?

exchange reaction

46

The most prevalent type of chemical reaction in the human body.

exchange reaction

47

The production of ATP in the muscle tissue is an example of what type of reaction?

exchange reaction

48

A specific type of exchange reaction that involves the movement of electrons from one chemical structure to another.

oxidation-reduction reaction

49

Occurs as a molecule, atoms, or ion loses an electron(s) and thus becomes oxidized.

oxidation
LEO = chemical structure loses electrons is oxidized

50

Occurs as a molecule, atom, or ion gains an electron(s) and thus becomes reduced

reduction
GER= chemical structure gains electrons is reduced

51

The term "reduced" is used because the chemical structure gains an electron, ________, so it can be thought of as "reduced" in charge.

a negatively charged particle

52

_________ and _________ always occur together because one chemical structure loses the electron(s) and another gains the electrons.

Oxidation and Reduction

53

An electron transferred from one chemical structure may move alone or with _____.

hydrogen

54

Electron transfer occurs when NAD+ becomes NADH. is this oxidized or reduced?

reduced

55

The movement of electrons can be harnessed to ______.

do work

56

The electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions represent _____________.

energy transfer

57

When glucose oxidized is losing its electrons it is also releasing its _______, when other molecules are reduced and gain both electrons and energy.

chemical energy

58

Chemical reaction are classified by the relative amounts of chemical energy associated with the ______ and ______.

reactants and products

59

Are reactions that involve reactants at the start of a reaction that have more potential energy within their chemical bonds than do the products that are formed.

exergonic reactions
i.e. the decomposition of glucose to carbon dioxide and water

60

Means that energy "goes out".

exergonic

61

Are reactions that involve reactants that have less energy within their chemical bonds than do the products.

endergonic reactions

62

Means that energy must be "put in"

endergonic

63

Reactions that yield products that have a net increase in potential energy as compared to what was present in the substrates.

endergonic reactions
i.e. synthesis reactions

64

The continuous formation and breakdown of ATP.

ATP cycling

65

ATP is formed when energy is released in _________ using glucose or other fuel molecules from the foods we eat. These molecules undergo ______, and energy stored within their chemical bonds is transferred to ADP and P1 (free phosphate) to form ATP. ATP is then split into ADP and P1, and the energy released is used for endergonic reactions, as well as other energy-requiring cellular processes.

exergonic reactions
oxidation

66

A cell cannot stockpile ATP, so only a _______ worth of ATP is present.

few seconds

67

The formation of ATP must occur _______ through the processes of breakdown of glucose.

continuously

68

Another way of classifying chemical reactions is based upon whether they are _____ or ______.

irreversible or reversible

69

A reaction that involves reactants converted to product at a rate that yields a net loss of reactants and a net gain in product.

irreversible reaction

70

An irreversible reaction is written with the arrow to the _____.

right
A + B -----> AB

71

A reaction in which reactants become products at a rate equal to products becoming reactants (once equilibrium is reached).

reversible reaction

72

The relationship of the reactants and products in a reversible reaction is shown with arrows in _______.

both directions
A + B

73

If left undisturbed a reversible reaction remains in ______, however a change in either the amount of reactant or the amount of product occurs.

equilibrium

74

The measure of how quickly a chemical reaction takes place; this rate determines the amount of product formed per time

reaction rate

75

A primary factor that influences the reaction rate is the energy required to break the __________ in a molecule so that new bonds can form the product.

chemical bonds

76

The energy required to break existing chemical bonds for the chemical reaction to proceed is called ________.

the activation energy or Ea

77

When sufficient energy is supplied to overcome the Ea a ______ occurs.

chemical reaction

78

An elevation in _______ increases the kinetic energy of the molecules, providing enough energy to break chemical bonds, but this is not feasible in a living cell.

temperature

79

In a cell an increase in temperature would denature all of its __________ and cause its death.

proteins

80

________ are the chemical structures that facilitate the millions of chemical changes that occur within the human body every second, and their importance cannot be overstated.

chemical reactions

81

Biologically active catalysts that function to accelerate normal physiologic activities by decreasing the activation energy (Ea) of chemical reactions.

enzymes

82

A chemical reaction without an enzyme.

uncatalyzed reaction

83

A chemical reaction with an enzyme.

catalyzed reaction

84

_______ is required to initiate the reaction to occur even though it is exergonic.

activation energy

85

Most ______ are globular proteins that rand in size from relatively small proteins composed of about 60 amino acids to very large proteins of more than 2500 amino acids.

enzymes

86

The amino acids in the protein chain form a unique three-dimensional molecular structure with a region called the _______.

active site

87

The _______ in the shape of the active site permits only a single substrate, or type of substrate, to bind to the active site, and thus the enzyme is capable of catalyzing only one specific reaction.

specificity

88

The active site accommodates the substrate(s) of a reaction to temporarily form an _____________.

enzyme-substrate complex

89

Enzymes are produced by normal protein synthesis processes with _____, but once formed, the location of the enzyme varies.

cells

90

Enzymes may remain within ______.

the cell
i.e. DNA polymerase

91

Enzymes may become embedded within the ______.

plasma membrane
i.e. lactase, which digests the milk sugar lactose and is found in plasma membranes of cells

92

Enzymes may be secreted from the ___.

cell
i.e. pancreatic amylase released from the pancreas into the small intestine to participate in the digestion of starch

93

Step 1 of enzyme catalyzes a reaction
The substrate enters the _____ of the enzyme, and the enzyme temporarily binds with the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex.

active site

94

Step 2 of enzyme catalyzes a reaction
Entry of the substrate into the active site induces the _________ of the enzyme to change slightly, resulting in an even closer fit between substrate and enzyme. This response is referred to as the induced-fit model of enzyme function.

conformation (structure)

95

Step 3 of enzyme catalyzes a reaction
Stress on ______ in the substrate molecule is caused by the change in enzyme shape. This stress lowers Ea, and the bonds in the substrates are more easily broken permitting new chemical bonds to be formed.

chemical bonds

96

Step 4 of enzyme catalyzes a reaction
The newly formed molecule, now called the ______, is released from the enzyme. The enzyme is then free to repeat that process again and again with other substrates.

product

97

Enzymes often require _______ that are "helper ion or molecules to ensure that a reaction occurs.

cofactors

98

A cofactor is a nonprotein structure that may be either and _______ or ______ substance.

inorganic or organic

99

A _______ is associated with a particular enzyme or enzymatic reaction.

cofactor

100

Inorganic cofactors are attached to the enzyme and are required for their ________.

normal function

101

___________ are not attached to enzymes and have specific functions in assisting enzymes.

Organic cofactors

102

Organic cofactors are more specifically referred to as _________.

conenzymes

103

The six major classes of enzymes

Oxidoreductase
Transferase
HydrolaseIsomerase
Ligase
Lyase

104

Transfers a functional group.

transferase

105

Splits a chemical bond using water.

hydrolase

106

Transfers electrons from one substance to another.

oxidoreductase

107

Converts one isomer to another.

isomerase

108

Bonds two molecules together.

Ligase

109

Splits a chemical bond in the absence of water.

Lyase

110

Enzymes in the oxidoreductase class participate in _____ reactions.

oxidation-reduction

111

A subcatagory of enzymes within the oxidoreductase class.

dehyrogenase

112

Dehydrogenase participate in oxidation-reduction reactions by moving __________ between molecules.

hydrogen

113

These enzymes transfer atoms or molecules between chemical structures.

transferase class

114

______ enzymes belong to this class because they specifically transfer a phosphate functional group, usually from ATP to another molecule.

Kinase

115

An enzyme that transfers a hydrogen, specifically from a pyruvate molecule

pyruvate dehydrogenase
*the name of a given enzyme is generally based upon the name of the substrate or product involved in the chemical reaction, and the suffix -ase added

116

Is central to the formation of the polymer DNA from deoxyribonucleotides.

DNA polymerase

117

Digests the disaccharide lactose "lactose intolerance"

Lactase

118

The name of an enzyme generally contains an -ase suffix and the rest of the name reflects its ______, but there are exceptions.

function

119

Several conditions influence the reaction rates catalyzed by enzymes. The most significant factors are ________, ________, and _____.

enzyme and substrate concentration
temperature
pH

120

An increase in _______, however, increases the rate of reaction only to the point of ________ of the enzyme.

substrate concentration
saturation

121

This occurs when so much substrate is present that all enzyme molecules are actively engaged in the chemical reaction, resulting in no further (notable) increase in rate reaction.

saturation

122

Human enzymes function efficiently at their ___________, usually 98.6F or 37C, which is the normal body temperature.

optimal temperature

123

Temperature increases in the body increases enzymatic activity; one advantage is that this enhance __________.

the body's ability to fight infectious agents

124

Severe increases in temperature, 104F or 40C, weaken the intramolecular bonds that hold an enzyme's protein structure in its three-dimensional shape. Permanently _______.

losing function

125

Enzymes function most efficiently at their ______.

optimal pH

126

For most human enzymes the optimal pH is between pH _____

6 and 8

127

An increase in H+ causes a _______ in pH and results in additional H+ binding to the enzyme.

decrease

128

A decrease in H+ causes an ______ in pH, which results in the release of H+ from an enzyme.

increase

129

A change in the amount of H+ attached to the enzyme disrupts the _________ that hold the enzyme protein in its shape. A significant disruptions results in ______ of the enzyme.

electrostatic interactions
denaturation

130

Not all enzymes have an optimal pH between 6 and 8. Name an example.

the pH of the stomach is between 2 and 4; the stomach enzyme pepsin corresponds to this pH range.
the pH of the small intestine is between 6 and 9; thus when stomach contents move into the small intestine, pepsin is inactivated.

131

An enzyme continues to facilitate the conversion to facilitate the conversion of its substrate(s) to product as long as ______ substrate is present and environmental conditions are close to normal.

ample

132

Uncontrolled enzymes would result in substrate levels and conenctration of products that _______ what is needed.

exceeds

133

Enzymes must be ______ turned off to prevent overproduction.

temporarily

134

Substances that bind to an enzyme and turn it off, thus preventing from catalyzing the reaction.

inhibitors

135

A ________ resembles the substrate and binds to the active site of the enzyme.

competitive inhibitor

136

The substrate and the regulatory compound compete with each other for occupation of the enzyme's _____ in competitive inhibitors.

active site

137

The determines of substrate relative to the amount of competitive inhibitor determines the _______.

degree of inhibition

138

If greater the concentration of the substrate, the ____ the competitive inhibitor will occupy the enzyme's active site and vice versa.

less likely

139

The type of inhibitor that resembles the substrate.

competitive inhibitor

140

They inhibit an enzyme by binding to a site in the enzyme other than the active site, a site termed the _________.

noncompetitive inhibitors
allosteric site

141

Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to the ______.

allosteric site

142

Usually multiple enzymes are required to convert an initial substrate to a _____.

final product

143

Depending on both the substrate and sequence of conversion, these multiple enzymes are arranged either in a ______ or as a _______.

metabolic pathway
multienzyme complex

144

This pathway is formed by numerous enzymes.

metabolic pathway

145

A drug that inhibits enzymes include ______.

penicillin

146

When each enzyme catalyzes one progressive change to its specific substrate molecule and then release the product. Then the product of one enzyme becomes the substrate of the next enzyme.

metabolic pathway

147

A group of enzymes that are physically attached to each other through noncovalent bonds to form the complex. These enzymes work in a sequence of reactions.

multienzyme complex

148

A multienzyme complexes has two major advantages. The product from one chemical reaction is immediately bound to the next enzyme in the _________. This makes it more likely that the needed product is formed and less likely that the substance will _____ away and come into contact with an enzyme.

multienzyme complex
diffuse

149

The second major advantage of a Multienzyme complex is the ________ can be regulated by controlling the single complex rather than multiple individual enzymes.

enzymatic pathway

150

Metabolic pathways and multienzyme complexes must be regulated to prevent _________of an unneeded product and exhaustion of substrates that could be used elsewhere. The regulation occurs through the process of ________.

overproduction
negative feedback

151

One specific mechanism for regulating enzymes is by either ________ or ______ of the enzyme.

phosphorylation or dephosphorylation

152

The addition of a phosphate group.

phosphorylation

153

The removal of a phosphate group.

dephosphorylation

154

__________ may turn on some enzymes but turn off other enzymes.

phosphorylation

155

_________ may cause opposite effects in activity by different types of enzymes.

dephosphorylation

156

Enzymes that add phosphate are generally called _______.

protein kinases

157

Enzymes that remove the phosphates are called ________.

phosphatases

158

A multistep metabolic pathway whereby organic molecules are disassembled (broken down) in a controlled manner by a series of enzymes.

cellular respiration

159

Potential energy stored in the molecule's chemical bonds is released, during ________.

disassembly

160

The energy released during disassembly makes new bonds between ____ and ____ to form ATP.

ADP and Pi

161

Cellular respiration is _________ or energy releasing.

exergonic

162

The organic molecules that have given up their energy during cellular respiration by releasing _________, thus the molecule said to be __________.

high-energy electrons
oxidized

163

The energy used to synthesize ATP comes from __________, and is an endergoic process.

cellular respiration

164

_______ is required for maximum ATP production.

oxygen

165

Occurs within cells and is a step-by-step enzymatic breakdown of glucose with the accompanying release of energy to synthesize ATP. If _____ is available, glucose is completely broken down and carbon dioxide and water are formed.

glucose oxidation
oxygen

166

Chemical formula for glucose.

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -------> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

167

Glucose is an energy rich molecule because of its many _____, _____, and ______ chemical bonds.

Carbon - Carbon
Carbon - Hydrogen
Carbon - Oxygen

168

Glucose oxidation is an _____ reaction.

exergonic

169

The energy transfer from bonds in the glucose molecule can be used either directly, _____, or indirectly, _______ to form ATP.

least common way
most common way

170

the direct method of synthesizing ATP

substrate-level phosphorylation

171

the indirect method in which the energy is first released to coenzymes that ten transfer the energy to form ATP

oxidative phosphorylation

172

The complete oxidation of glucose requires at least ____ different enzymes that are located in both the cell's cytosol and its mitochondria.

20

173

The semifluid contents of the cell.

cytosol

174

Small organelles within the cell.

mitochondria

175

Glucose oxidation (cellular respiration) is separated into four stages

glycolysis
intermediate stage
citric acid cycle
electron transport system

176

Glycolysis occurs in the ______ and does not require oxygen.

cytosol

177

Glycolysis can occur either in the presence of oxygen or ________.

the absence of oxygen

178

The other three stages of glucose oxidation occur in the _______.

mitochondria

179

__________ does not require oxygen.

glycolysis

180

Glucose is broken down in the metabolic pathway into _____ pyruvate molecules with an accompanying energy transfer to form a net production of ______ and ____.

2
2 ATP
2NADH

181

Steps of Glycolysis 1 - 5

Steps 1 through 5 of glycolysis involve splitting glucose into two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) through the action of the first five enzymes. ATP is "invested" with kinase enzymes transfer Pi from ATP to glucose and the breakdown products of glucose (steps 1 and 3). Thus, and investment of 2 ATP molecules occurs at these two steps..

182

Steps of Glycolysis 6-7

Glycolysis occurs twice in oxidation of a glucose molecule. Step 6 involves transferring an unattached Pi to the substrate (so this molecule now has two phosphates), and two hydrogen atoms are released to NAD+ to form an NADH (add H+). This transfer of hydrogen is catalyzed by a hydrogenase enzyme. In step 7, the original Pi is transferred to ADP to form ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation by a kinase enzyme.

183

Steps of Glycolysis 8-10

Steps 8 through 10 of glycolysis also occur twice in oxidation of a glucose molecule. These steps involve converting the molecule produced in step 7 to an isomer (step 8) and then the loss of water molecule (step 9). The remaining Pi is transferred to ADP to form ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation by a kinase enzyme (step 10), forming the final product of pyruvate.

184

Gylcolysis is a metabolic process that occurs in the ________ without the requirement of oxygen.

cytosol

185

Glucose is the _____ substrate and _______ is the final product.

initial, pyruvate

186

The net transfer of energy is used in the formation of _______ and _____ molecules.

2 ATP
2 NADH

187

Two ______ molecules are invested early in the glycolysis (steps 1 -3).

ATP

188

______ molecules are formed during glycolysis (steps 7 - 10, which occur twice per the original glucose molecule).

4 ATP

189

There is a net ____ molecules formed during glycolysis.

of 2 ATP

190

Two ____ molecules are formed form glucose breakdown during glycolysis (step 6, which occurs twice per the original glucose molecule)

NADH

191

Glycolysis is regulated through ________ like many metabolic pathways.

negative feedback

192

ATP acts as an _______ inhibitor to "turn off" phosphofructokinase (PFK).

allosteric

193

As ATP levels increase in the cell cytosol, ATP binding inhibits ______, and the glycolytic pathway is progressively shut down.

PFK

194

As ATP levels decreases, _______ increases.

glycolysis

195

Phosphofructokinase is also regulated in a similar way by other substances that indicate the _______ of the cell, including NADH, citrate, fatty acids, and other fuel molecules.

energy status

196

Increased levels in substances that indicate the energy status of the cell results in a decrease in _________.

the process of glycolysis

197

The final product of glycolysis.

pyruvate

198

What chemical changes are then made to pyruvate depend upon the ________.

availability of oxygen

199

If sufficient O2 is available, pyruvate enters a _______ to complete its aerobic breakdown yielding carbon dioxide and water.

mitochondrion

200

In contrast, if sufficient oxygen is not available, pyruvate is converted to _______.

lactate

201

The remaining stages of cellular respiration, including the intermediate stage, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport system are aerobic processes that occur within _____.

mitochondria

202

A double-membrane organelle, composed of an outer membrane and an inner membrane that has inward folds.

Mitochondrion

203

The inner membrane of mitochondrion is made up of inward folds called _____.

cristae

204

The fluid filled space between the two membranes of the mitochnodrion is the _______.

outer compartment

205

The innermost space in a mitochndrion is called the _____matrix.

matrix

206

Both the multienzyme complex of the intermediate stage and the enzymes of the _______ cycle metabolic pathway reside in the matrix.

citric acid cycle

207

The "link" between the multi-step metabolic processes of glycolysis (first stage) with the multistep metabolic processes that occur in the citric acid cycle (3rd stage).

intermediate stage

208

The intermediate stage is catalyzed by a multienzyme complex called ______.

pyruvate dehydrogenase

209

During the ____ stage, pyruvate dehydrogenase brings together pyruvate and a molecule of ______ that is already present within the matrix to form acetyl CoA.

intermediate
coenzyme A (CoA)

210

At the same time the pyruvate dehydrogenase is bringing together pyruvate and a molecule of Co, a carboxyl group, consisting of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms is released from the _______ as _____, called ______.

pyruvate as CO2 called decarboxylation

211

______ is released during decarboxylation as two hydrogen atoms are transferred to the coenzyme NAD+ to form _____. during this process.

Energy
NADH

212

After decarboxylation, the acetyl CoA then enters the third stage of _______, termed the _________.

glucose oxidation
citric acid cycle

213

The citric acid cycle is also known as the _____ cycle.

Krebs

214

A cyclic metabolic pathway that occurs through the activity of nine enzymes located within the matrix of mitochondria.

Citric Acid Cycle
Krebs Cycle

215

During the citric acid cycle, the acetyl CoA produced in the intermediate stage is converted to two _____ molecules and a CoA molecule is _______.

C02
released

216

Energy is transferred to form one ATP molecule, three _____ molecules, and ______ molecule during one turn of the citric acid cycle.

3 NADH molecules
1 FADH2 molecule

217

Glycolysis occurs in _______.

cytosol

218

The Intermediate Stage take place in the ________.

Mitochondria

219

The Citric Acid Cycle takes place in the _____.

Mitochondria

220

Glycolysis requires oxygen. T or F

no

221

The Intermediate Stage requires oxygen. T or F

Yes

222

The Citric Acid Cycle requires oxygen.
T or F

Yes

223

The substrate of glycolysis is _____.

glucose

224

The substrate of the intermediate stage is ________.

Pyruvate (2 pyruvates from each glucose)

225

The substrate of the Citric Acid Cycle is ______.

Acetyl CoA (2 Acetyl CoA from each glucose)

226

The product of glycolysis _______.

2 pyruvate molecules

227

The product of the Intermediate stage is _________.

Acetyl CoA and 1 CO2 per pyruvate

228

The product of the citric acid cycle _______.

2 CO2 per acetyl CoA

229

Glycolysis
pathway or complex

metabolic pathway

230

Intermediate Stage
pathway or complex

Multienzyme Complex

231

Citric Acid Cycle
pathway or complex

Metabolic pathway

232

Glycolysis
net energy molecules produced

2 ATP (net) and 2 NADH

233

Intermediate Stage
net energy molecules produced

1 NADH per pyruvate

234

Citric Acid Cycle
net energy molecules produced

1 ATP per acetyl CoA
3 NADH per acetyl CoA
1 FADH2 per acetyl CoA

235

Glycolysis
Lack of O2 affects the stage

Lactate produced (to regenerate NAD+ so glycolysis can continue)

236

Intermediate Stage
Lack of O2 affects the stage

Pathway inhibited by lack of oxygen

237

Citirc Acid Cycle
Lack of O2 affects the stage

Pathway inhibited by lack of oxygen