Chapter 3: Energy, Chemical Reactions, and Cellular Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Energy, Chemical Reactions, and Cellular Respiration Deck (237)
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1

Defined as the capacity to do work.

energy

2

Energy differs from matter in that it has no mass and ________.

does not take up space.

3

What are the two classes of energy?

potential energy and kinetic energy

4

The energy of position or stored energy

Potential energy

5

The energy of motion

Kinetic energy

6

Potential energy can be _______ or changed to kinetic energy and vice versa.

converted

7

Water at the top of dam has _____ energy because of its position; when the water falls over the dam it now has _____ energy.

potential, kinetic

8

Potential energy is exhibited in cells of living organisms when a _______ exists across the plasma membrane, which is the boundary between the inside and outside of a cell.

concentration gradients

9

The movement of NA+ from a high concentration outside the cell to a low concentration inside the cell is an example of ______ energy.

kinetic

10

Movements of electrons from high-energy shells have ____ energy.

kinetic

11

Energy that is stored in a molecule's chemical bonds, and is the most important form of energy in the human body.

Chemical

12

The chemical bonds of all molecules have ____.

chemical energy

13

Three important molecules in the human body function primarily in chemical energy storage: ____, _____, and _____.

triglycerides, glucose, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

14

Triglycerides are involved in the ________ in adipose connective tissue.

long term energy storage

15

ATP is stored in _____ in limited amounts and is produced continuously and used immediately for cells' energy required process.

all cells

16

Chemical energy is used for the energy-requiring process of movement, _____ and ________.

synthesis of molecules, establishment of concentration gradients

17

Forms of kinetic energy.

electric, mechanical, sound, radiant

18

This energy is the movement of charged particles.

electrical energy

19

This energy is exhibited by an object in motion due to an applied force.

mechanical energy

20

This energy occurs when the compression of molecules that move in a solid, liquid, or gas is caused by a vibrating object.

sound energy

21

The energy of electromagnetic waves traveling in the universe.

radiant energy

22

The kinetic energy associated with random motion of atoms, ions, or molecules.

heat

23

Gamma rays have the ____ amount of radiant energy, and radio waves have the ____.

highest, lowest

24

Muscle contraction is an example of what type of energy?

mechanical energy

25

The study of energy transformations.

thermodynamics

26

States that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed or converted from one form to another

First law of thermodynamics

27

One of the functions of muscle tissue is to produce ___ that keeps the body warm

heat

28

States that every time energy is transformed from one form to another, some of that energy is converted to heat.

Second law of thermodynamics

29

The collective term for all biochemical reactions in living organisms.

metabolism

30

When chemical bonds in an existing molecular structure are broken and new ones formed to produce a different structure.

chemical reaction