Flashcards in Chapter 3: Energy, Chemical Reactions, and Cellular Respiration Deck (237)
Defined as the capacity to do work.
Energy differs from matter in that it has no mass and ________.
does not take up space.
What are the two classes of energy?
potential energy and kinetic energy
The energy of position or stored energy
The energy of motion
Potential energy can be _______ or changed to kinetic energy and vice versa.
Water at the top of dam has _____ energy because of its position; when the water falls over the dam it now has _____ energy.
Potential energy is exhibited in cells of living organisms when a _______ exists across the plasma membrane, which is the boundary between the inside and outside of a cell.
The movement of NA+ from a high concentration outside the cell to a low concentration inside the cell is an example of ______ energy.
Movements of electrons from high-energy shells have ____ energy.
Energy that is stored in a molecule's chemical bonds, and is the most important form of energy in the human body.
The chemical bonds of all molecules have ____.
Three important molecules in the human body function primarily in chemical energy storage: ____, _____, and _____.
triglycerides, glucose, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Triglycerides are involved in the ________ in adipose connective tissue.
long term energy storage
ATP is stored in _____ in limited amounts and is produced continuously and used immediately for cells' energy required process.
Chemical energy is used for the energy-requiring process of movement, _____ and ________.
synthesis of molecules, establishment of concentration gradients
Forms of kinetic energy.
electric, mechanical, sound, radiant
This energy is the movement of charged particles.
This energy is exhibited by an object in motion due to an applied force.
This energy occurs when the compression of molecules that move in a solid, liquid, or gas is caused by a vibrating object.
The energy of electromagnetic waves traveling in the universe.
The kinetic energy associated with random motion of atoms, ions, or molecules.
Gamma rays have the ____ amount of radiant energy, and radio waves have the ____.
Muscle contraction is an example of what type of energy?
The study of energy transformations.
States that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed or converted from one form to another
First law of thermodynamics
One of the functions of muscle tissue is to produce ___ that keeps the body warm
States that every time energy is transformed from one form to another, some of that energy is converted to heat.
Second law of thermodynamics
The collective term for all biochemical reactions in living organisms.