Flashcards in Chapter 1: The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology Deck (242)
the study of structure and form, that examine the relationships among parts of the body as well as the structure of individual organs.
the study of function of the body parts. Examine how organs and body systems function under normal circumstances, as well ash how their functioning may be altered via medication or disease.
Scientific method refers to the systematic and rigorous process by which scientists:
examine natural events (or phenomena) through observation
develop a hypothesis for explaining these phenomena
experiment and test the hypothesis through the collection of data
determine if the data support the hypothesis, or if the hypothesis needs to be rejected or modified
examines structures that cannot be seen by the unaided eye
microscopic anatomy has several subdivision with two main divisions
cytology and histology
the study of body cells and their internal structure
the study of tissues
investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye, such as the brain and heart
Gross anatomy also called macroscopic anatomy
studies the anatomy of each functional body system
most undergraduate anatomy and physiology classes us this systemic approach
a study of the urinary system would involve examining the kidneys and the organs of urine transport. what type of anatomy is this?
examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit.
most medical school gross anatomy courses are taught using a regional anatomy approach
If you are studying the axillary region of the body, and in so doing examine the blood vessels, lymph nodes, musculature, connective tissue and skin. What type of anatomy is this?
focuses on both superficial anatomic marking and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them
health-care providers use features on the body to identify and locate important landmarks, such as pulse locations. what type of anatomy is this?
examines similarities and the differences in the anatomy of different species
if you examine limb structure in humans, dogs, and cats. what type of anatomy is this?
is the discipline concerned with developmental changes occurring from conception to birth
examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease. Both gross anatomic changes and microscopic structures are examined.
investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures, such as MRI or x-ray
examines the function of various organ systems, and they typically focus on the molecular or cellular level
examines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
_________ physiologists examine how the heart pumps the blood, what are the parameters for healthy blood pressure, and details of the cellular exchange mechanisms by which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes move between blood and body structures.
examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system
studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between the lungs and the blood vessels
explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation
investigates the relationship between the functioning of an organ system and disease or injury to that organ system.
Properties common to all organisms, including humans (6)
growth and development
all organisms exhibit a complex structure and order
the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur with the body.