Chapter 15: Nervous System Autonomic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15: Nervous System Autonomic Deck (91):
1

The somatic nervous system (SNS) includes processes that are ____ or controlled consciously.

perceived

2

The ____ sensory portion includes detection of stimuli and transmission of nerve signals from teh special senses (vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell and taste) skin, and propriocetors (receptors in joins and muscles that detect body positon) to the CNS.

somatic

3

The somatic ___ portion inolves initiation and transmission of nerve signals from the CNS to control ______.

motor portion
skeletal muscles

4

Both the sensory input we consciously perceive and the motor output we voluntarily initae to skeletal muscle inovle the _____.

cerebrum.

5

Reflexive skeletal muscle activity is controlled by the ____ and ___.

brainstem
spinal cord

6

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) also called teh autonomic motor or visceral motor system includes processes regulated below the _____ level.

conscious

7

The ANS is a motor system ___.

only

8

These autonomic motor components initate and transmit nerve signals from teh CNS to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and ____.

glands

9

The autonomic nervous sytem often responds to input from ____ sensory components such as receptors that detect stimuli associated with blood vessels and internal organs (viscera).

visceral sensory

10

The function of teh Autonomic Nervous system is to ___.

maintain homeostasis

11

The ANS regulates all _____ processes that must be maintained by the nervous system to keep the body alive including regulation of the HR, BP, and temp, seating, and digestion.

physiologic

12

The number of lower motor neurons that extend from the CNS differs between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nerouvs system. A ___ lower motor neuron extends from the CNS to skeletal muscle fibers in teh somatic nervous system.

single

13

In teh somatic nervous system teh cell body of a lwoer motor neuron lies within teh brainstem or teh ____ and its axon exits the CNS in either a cranial nerve or a spinal nerve and extends to a skeletal muscle respectively.

spinal cord

14

The motor neurons fo teh somatic nervous system are composed of myelinated axons with large diameter allowing for fast propagation of a _____ and alwyas release _____ neurotransmitter from its synaptic knobs to stimulate or excite eh skeltetal muscle fiber.

nerve signal
ACh

15

The sensory input of somatic nervous system

special senses, skin, proprioceptors

16

The effectors of somatic nervous system _____.

skeletal muscle fibers

17

The CNS region of control of teh somatic nervous system includes the cerebral cortex, cerebral nuclei, thalamus, ______, brainstem, and spinal cord.

cerebellum

18

Number of motor neurons in somatic nervous system pathway

one neuron from CNS
somatic motor neuron axon extends from CNS to effector

19

in the somatic nervous system the xons are _____ and thicken in diameter, have ___ nerve signal propagation.

myelinated
fast

20

In the somatic nervous system the motor neurons release the neurotransmitter ____.

Acetylcholine ACh

21

The response of an effector inthe somatic nervous system is ____.

excitation only

22

There are ___ ganglia associated with motor neurons inthe somatic nervous system.

no

23

CNS region of control in the autonomic nervous system inlcudes the hypothalamus, brainstem, spinal cord, cerebrum, thalamus, and ____.

limbic system

24

number of motor neurons in the pathway of autonomic nervous system

2 neurons from CNS
preganglionic neuron has preganglionic axon that projects to ganglionic neuron
ganglionic neuron has postganglionic axon that projects to effector

25

IN the ANS the pregagnionic axons are myelinated and ___ in diameter.

thin

26

Postgaglionic axons in the ANS are ______ and are thinner in diameter, both have relatively slow nerve signal propagation.

unmyelinated

27

In the ANS preganglionic axons release ____.

ACh

28

In the ANS postganglionic axons release either ACh or ___.

norepinephrine NE

29

The motor neurons in the ANS either excitatior or _____

inhibition

30

The first of teh two ANS motor neurons is the preganglionic neuron and its cell body lies within the brainstem or ___.

spinal cord

31

A preganglionic axon extends from this cell body and exits the CNS in either a ___ or ___ nerve.

crainial or spinal

32

Motor neurons fo teh ANS are ____ and mostly unmyelinated, propagation of nerve signals is relatively slow in comparison to nerve signal propagation alogn somatic motor axons.

small

33

The 2 neuron motor pathways in the ANS has a distinctive advantage over the one lower motor neuron of the somatic nervous sytem in that is allows for increasing _____ and ___. This occurs because there is neuronal convergence and neuronal divergence.

communication and control

34

neuronal convergence occurs becuase axons from numerous pregagnlionic neurons synapse with and influence a ___ gangionic neuron.

a single

35

Neuronal divergence occurs because axons from one preganglionic cell synapse with and influence ____ ganglionic neurons.

numerous

36

The hypothalamus in teh ANS is the integration and command center for autonomic ___.

functions

37

The hypothalamus contain ____ that conrol visceral functions in both division of the ANS and it communicates with other CNS regions, including the

brainstem and spinal cord

38

The hypothalamus is the central brain structure involved in emotions and ___ processes which are regulated through the ANS.

phsiologic

39

The brainstem nuclei mediate ____ reflexes.

visceral

40

These reflex centers control changes in BP, blood vessel diameter, digestive activities, heart rae, pupil size, and ___ shape for focusing on close up objects.

eye lense

41

Some autonomic responses, notably the parasympathetic activites associated with defecation and uringation are processed and controlled at the levelof the spinal cord with the inolvement of the ___.

brain

42

High center s in the brain may consciously prevent defecatio and urination by controling the external ___

sphincters

43

ANS activites are affected by conscious activities in the _____ and subconcious communication between teh association areas int eh cortex and the center os parasympathetic and sympathetic tonrol inthe hypothalamus.

cerebral cortex

44

___ processing in the thalamus and emotional states controlled inteh limbic system directly affect the hypothalamus.

sensory

45

ANS - president - hypothalamus
vice president - brainstem and spinal cord
workers - preganglionic and ganglionic neurons

ANS corp

46

The two sudivisions of the motor component of the ANS are the parasympathetic division and the ____ division.

sympathetic

47

The parasympathetic division functions to maintain _____ as we rest.

homeostasis

48

The parasympathetic division is primarily concerned with conserving energy and replenishing ___.

nutrient stores

49

The parasympathetic division is most active when the body is at ___ or digesting a meal it is nicknamed the "rest and digest" division.

rest

50

The sympathetic division functions to maintain homeostasis during ____ or times of stress or emergency, which includes the release of nutrients from stores (glucose released from the liver).

exercise

51

Sympathetic division functions in regulating the more ___ states so its nicknamed the fight or flight division.

active

52

Both sympathetic divisions and parasympathetic divisions use a preganglionic neuron and a ganlionic neuron to innervate cardia muscle, smooth muscle, or ___.

glands

53

Additionally, both divisions have autonomic ganglia that house the ganglionic neuron ____.

cell bodies

54

In teh parasympthetic preganglionic cell bodies ae located in either the brain stem or the lateral gray matter of the S2-__ spinal cord segments. As a result the division is also termed the craniosacral division

S4

55

The sympathetic pregangionic neuron cell bodies are located in teh lateral horns of teh T1-___ spinal cord segment and is also termed teh thoracolumbar division.

L2

56

Parasympathetic preganglionic axons are ____ and postganglionic axons are ____ when compared to the sympathetic division.

longer
shorter

57

In the sympathetic division pregagnlionic axons are shorter and postganglionic axons are ___.

longer

58

Parsympathetic preganglionic axons tend to have few (less than 4) ___ whereas sympathetic preganglionic axons tend to have many ____ more than 20.

branches
branches

59

Parasympathetic autonomic ganglia are either close (terminal ganglia) or within the _____ (intramural ganglia).

effector

60

Sympathetic autonomic ganglia are relatively ____ to the spinal cord, and are on either side of teh spinal cord or anterior to the spinal cord.

close

61

It is the combination of long preganglionic axons with limited branches that results in a ____ response when the parasympathetic division is activated.

local

62

Parasympathetic activity stimulates either one or only a ___ structures at the same time without necessarily having to turn on all the other organs.

few

63

The combination of short preganglionic axons with more extensive brancing within the sympathetic division facilitates the activation of ___ strucures simotaniously; a process called ___.

many
mass activation

64

Mass activation is facilitated when the adrenal medulla is stimulated by teh sympathetic division, which causes this gland to release ___ and ___ into the blood.

norepinephrine and epinephrine

65

Mass activationis especially important in response to stress, when it is necessary to cordinate rapid changes in acitivity with ____ structures at once.

numerous

66

THere are times that the sympathetic division may acitivate a ____.

single effector

67

There are two types of ganglia associated with the parasympathetic division which are the terminal ganglia, which are located close ot teh effector, and teh intramural ganglia, which are located within teh wall of the ___.

target organ

68

The oculomotor nerve (CN III) is formed by axons extending from cell bodies housed in nuclei in the ___.

midbrain.

69

The preganglionic axons extend from CNIII (oculomtor) to the ___ ganglion within the orbit.

ciliary

70

Postganglionic axons project from this ganglion to the cilary muscle (within the eye) to control focusing of the lens to see ___.

close up objects

71

Axons from this gangilion also extend to the spincter pupillae muscle of teh iris which ____to allow less light into the eye.

constricts the pupil

72

The facial nerve (CN VII) contains parasympathetic pregatnglionic axons that exit the pons and control the production and secretion of tears, mucus, and ___.

saliva

73

Two branches of parasympathetic preganglionic axons exit the facil nerve and terminate at one of two ganglia. One branch terminates at the ____ near the junctionof the maxilla and palantine bones. postganglionic axons project to the lacrimal glands and small glands of the ___ cavity, oral cavity, and plate to increase secretion by these glands.

pterygopalatine ganglion
nasal cavity

74

The other of the parsympathetic branches of the facial nerve (CN VII) terminates in the ____ ganglion near the angle of the mandible.

submandibular ganglion

75

Postganglionic axons projecting from this ganglion innervates the submandibular and ___ salivary glands in the floor the mouth, causing an increase in salivary gland secretions.

sublingual

76

Your mouth waters when you smell an aromatic meal due in part to these ____ axons.

parasympathetic

77

The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) innervates the parotid ____ gland.

salivary

78

Parasympathetic neurons extend from teh brainstem inteh glossopharyngeal nerve and synapse on ganglionc neurons in the ___ ganglion, which is poistioned anterior to the ear.

otic

79

Postganglionic axons projecting from teh ganglion stimulate the parotid salivary glands to increase their ____.

secretions

80

The vagus nerve (CN X) innervates the ____ organs and most of the ____ organs as well as the gonads (ovaries and testes)

thoracic
abdominal

81

In the thoracic cavity, branches of the vagus nerve extend to the heart to decrease heart rate and to the bronchioles of the lung to cause ______, which allows less air into the lungs.

bronchconstriction

82

In the abdominal cavity branches of the vagus nerve extend to the GI tract to increase motility and ___ and to the liver to stimulate the storage of ____ through glycogenesis.

release of secretions
glucose

83

The remaining parasympathetic preganglionic axons orignate from preganglionic neuron cell bodes housed within the lateral gray regions of teh S2-___ spinal cord segments.

S4

84

These preganglionic axons branch to form teh ___ splanchnic nerves (S2-S4) which contribute to a superior and inferior hypogasric plexus on each side of teh body.

pelvic

85

The target organs innervated include the distal portion of the large intestine, teh rectum, the urinary bladder, the distal part of teh ureter, and most of the ___ organs. This parasympathetic regulation of these target organs causes increase smooth muscle ____ and secretory activity in these portions of digestive tract, contraction of smooth muscle in the urinary bladder waller, and erection of the female clitoris and male ___.

reproductive
motility
penis

86

The sympathetic division is primarily concened with preparing the body for exercise and ___.

emergencies

87

The sympathetic division is much more antomically complex than the ____ division

parasympathetic

88

The sympathetic preganglionic neuron cell bodies are housed in the ___ horn of teh T1-L2 regions of the spinal cord.

lateral

89

From the lateral horn the preganglionic sympathetic axons travel with somatic motor axons to exit the spinal cord and enter the first the anterior roots and the the ____ spinal nerves..

T1-L2

90

These preganglionic sympathetic axons remian with the spinal nerve for only a ___ distance before they branch from teh spinal nerve.

short

91

Immediately lateral to the vertebral column and anterior to the paired spinal nerves are the left and right ____ trunks.

sympathetic trunks