Flashcards in Chapter 15: Nervous System Autonomic Deck (91):
The somatic nervous system (SNS) includes processes that are ____ or controlled consciously.
The ____ sensory portion includes detection of stimuli and transmission of nerve signals from teh special senses (vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell and taste) skin, and propriocetors (receptors in joins and muscles that detect body positon) to the CNS.
The somatic ___ portion inolves initiation and transmission of nerve signals from the CNS to control ______.
Both the sensory input we consciously perceive and the motor output we voluntarily initae to skeletal muscle inovle the _____.
Reflexive skeletal muscle activity is controlled by the ____ and ___.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) also called teh autonomic motor or visceral motor system includes processes regulated below the _____ level.
The ANS is a motor system ___.
These autonomic motor components initate and transmit nerve signals from teh CNS to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and ____.
The autonomic nervous sytem often responds to input from ____ sensory components such as receptors that detect stimuli associated with blood vessels and internal organs (viscera).
The function of teh Autonomic Nervous system is to ___.
The ANS regulates all _____ processes that must be maintained by the nervous system to keep the body alive including regulation of the HR, BP, and temp, seating, and digestion.
The number of lower motor neurons that extend from the CNS differs between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nerouvs system. A ___ lower motor neuron extends from the CNS to skeletal muscle fibers in teh somatic nervous system.
In teh somatic nervous system teh cell body of a lwoer motor neuron lies within teh brainstem or teh ____ and its axon exits the CNS in either a cranial nerve or a spinal nerve and extends to a skeletal muscle respectively.
The motor neurons fo teh somatic nervous system are composed of myelinated axons with large diameter allowing for fast propagation of a _____ and alwyas release _____ neurotransmitter from its synaptic knobs to stimulate or excite eh skeltetal muscle fiber.
The sensory input of somatic nervous system
special senses, skin, proprioceptors
The effectors of somatic nervous system _____.
skeletal muscle fibers
The CNS region of control of teh somatic nervous system includes the cerebral cortex, cerebral nuclei, thalamus, ______, brainstem, and spinal cord.
Number of motor neurons in somatic nervous system pathway
one neuron from CNS
somatic motor neuron axon extends from CNS to effector
in the somatic nervous system the xons are _____ and thicken in diameter, have ___ nerve signal propagation.
In the somatic nervous system the motor neurons release the neurotransmitter ____.
The response of an effector inthe somatic nervous system is ____.
There are ___ ganglia associated with motor neurons inthe somatic nervous system.
CNS region of control in the autonomic nervous system inlcudes the hypothalamus, brainstem, spinal cord, cerebrum, thalamus, and ____.
number of motor neurons in the pathway of autonomic nervous system
2 neurons from CNS
preganglionic neuron has preganglionic axon that projects to ganglionic neuron
ganglionic neuron has postganglionic axon that projects to effector
IN the ANS the pregagnionic axons are myelinated and ___ in diameter.
Postgaglionic axons in the ANS are ______ and are thinner in diameter, both have relatively slow nerve signal propagation.
In the ANS preganglionic axons release ____.
In the ANS postganglionic axons release either ACh or ___.
The motor neurons in the ANS either excitatior or _____
The first of teh two ANS motor neurons is the preganglionic neuron and its cell body lies within the brainstem or ___.
A preganglionic axon extends from this cell body and exits the CNS in either a ___ or ___ nerve.
crainial or spinal
Motor neurons fo teh ANS are ____ and mostly unmyelinated, propagation of nerve signals is relatively slow in comparison to nerve signal propagation alogn somatic motor axons.
The 2 neuron motor pathways in the ANS has a distinctive advantage over the one lower motor neuron of the somatic nervous sytem in that is allows for increasing _____ and ___. This occurs because there is neuronal convergence and neuronal divergence.
communication and control
neuronal convergence occurs becuase axons from numerous pregagnlionic neurons synapse with and influence a ___ gangionic neuron.
Neuronal divergence occurs because axons from one preganglionic cell synapse with and influence ____ ganglionic neurons.
The hypothalamus in teh ANS is the integration and command center for autonomic ___.
The hypothalamus contain ____ that conrol visceral functions in both division of the ANS and it communicates with other CNS regions, including the
brainstem and spinal cord
The hypothalamus is the central brain structure involved in emotions and ___ processes which are regulated through the ANS.
The brainstem nuclei mediate ____ reflexes.
These reflex centers control changes in BP, blood vessel diameter, digestive activities, heart rae, pupil size, and ___ shape for focusing on close up objects.
Some autonomic responses, notably the parasympathetic activites associated with defecation and uringation are processed and controlled at the levelof the spinal cord with the inolvement of the ___.
High center s in the brain may consciously prevent defecatio and urination by controling the external ___
ANS activites are affected by conscious activities in the _____ and subconcious communication between teh association areas int eh cortex and the center os parasympathetic and sympathetic tonrol inthe hypothalamus.
___ processing in the thalamus and emotional states controlled inteh limbic system directly affect the hypothalamus.
ANS - president - hypothalamus
vice president - brainstem and spinal cord
workers - preganglionic and ganglionic neurons
The two sudivisions of the motor component of the ANS are the parasympathetic division and the ____ division.
The parasympathetic division functions to maintain _____ as we rest.
The parasympathetic division is primarily concerned with conserving energy and replenishing ___.
The parasympathetic division is most active when the body is at ___ or digesting a meal it is nicknamed the "rest and digest" division.
The sympathetic division functions to maintain homeostasis during ____ or times of stress or emergency, which includes the release of nutrients from stores (glucose released from the liver).
Sympathetic division functions in regulating the more ___ states so its nicknamed the fight or flight division.
Both sympathetic divisions and parasympathetic divisions use a preganglionic neuron and a ganlionic neuron to innervate cardia muscle, smooth muscle, or ___.
Additionally, both divisions have autonomic ganglia that house the ganglionic neuron ____.
In teh parasympthetic preganglionic cell bodies ae located in either the brain stem or the lateral gray matter of the S2-__ spinal cord segments. As a result the division is also termed the craniosacral division
The sympathetic pregangionic neuron cell bodies are located in teh lateral horns of teh T1-___ spinal cord segment and is also termed teh thoracolumbar division.
Parasympathetic preganglionic axons are ____ and postganglionic axons are ____ when compared to the sympathetic division.
In the sympathetic division pregagnlionic axons are shorter and postganglionic axons are ___.
Parsympathetic preganglionic axons tend to have few (less than 4) ___ whereas sympathetic preganglionic axons tend to have many ____ more than 20.
Parasympathetic autonomic ganglia are either close (terminal ganglia) or within the _____ (intramural ganglia).
Sympathetic autonomic ganglia are relatively ____ to the spinal cord, and are on either side of teh spinal cord or anterior to the spinal cord.
It is the combination of long preganglionic axons with limited branches that results in a ____ response when the parasympathetic division is activated.
Parasympathetic activity stimulates either one or only a ___ structures at the same time without necessarily having to turn on all the other organs.
The combination of short preganglionic axons with more extensive brancing within the sympathetic division facilitates the activation of ___ strucures simotaniously; a process called ___.
Mass activation is facilitated when the adrenal medulla is stimulated by teh sympathetic division, which causes this gland to release ___ and ___ into the blood.
norepinephrine and epinephrine
Mass activationis especially important in response to stress, when it is necessary to cordinate rapid changes in acitivity with ____ structures at once.
THere are times that the sympathetic division may acitivate a ____.
There are two types of ganglia associated with the parasympathetic division which are the terminal ganglia, which are located close ot teh effector, and teh intramural ganglia, which are located within teh wall of the ___.
The oculomotor nerve (CN III) is formed by axons extending from cell bodies housed in nuclei in the ___.
The preganglionic axons extend from CNIII (oculomtor) to the ___ ganglion within the orbit.
Postganglionic axons project from this ganglion to the cilary muscle (within the eye) to control focusing of the lens to see ___.
close up objects
Axons from this gangilion also extend to the spincter pupillae muscle of teh iris which ____to allow less light into the eye.
constricts the pupil
The facial nerve (CN VII) contains parasympathetic pregatnglionic axons that exit the pons and control the production and secretion of tears, mucus, and ___.
Two branches of parasympathetic preganglionic axons exit the facil nerve and terminate at one of two ganglia. One branch terminates at the ____ near the junctionof the maxilla and palantine bones. postganglionic axons project to the lacrimal glands and small glands of the ___ cavity, oral cavity, and plate to increase secretion by these glands.
The other of the parsympathetic branches of the facial nerve (CN VII) terminates in the ____ ganglion near the angle of the mandible.
Postganglionic axons projecting from this ganglion innervates the submandibular and ___ salivary glands in the floor the mouth, causing an increase in salivary gland secretions.
Your mouth waters when you smell an aromatic meal due in part to these ____ axons.
The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) innervates the parotid ____ gland.
Parasympathetic neurons extend from teh brainstem inteh glossopharyngeal nerve and synapse on ganglionc neurons in the ___ ganglion, which is poistioned anterior to the ear.
Postganglionic axons projecting from teh ganglion stimulate the parotid salivary glands to increase their ____.
The vagus nerve (CN X) innervates the ____ organs and most of the ____ organs as well as the gonads (ovaries and testes)
In the thoracic cavity, branches of the vagus nerve extend to the heart to decrease heart rate and to the bronchioles of the lung to cause ______, which allows less air into the lungs.
In the abdominal cavity branches of the vagus nerve extend to the GI tract to increase motility and ___ and to the liver to stimulate the storage of ____ through glycogenesis.
release of secretions
The remaining parasympathetic preganglionic axons orignate from preganglionic neuron cell bodes housed within the lateral gray regions of teh S2-___ spinal cord segments.
These preganglionic axons branch to form teh ___ splanchnic nerves (S2-S4) which contribute to a superior and inferior hypogasric plexus on each side of teh body.
The target organs innervated include the distal portion of the large intestine, teh rectum, the urinary bladder, the distal part of teh ureter, and most of the ___ organs. This parasympathetic regulation of these target organs causes increase smooth muscle ____ and secretory activity in these portions of digestive tract, contraction of smooth muscle in the urinary bladder waller, and erection of the female clitoris and male ___.
The sympathetic division is primarily concened with preparing the body for exercise and ___.
The sympathetic division is much more antomically complex than the ____ division
The sympathetic preganglionic neuron cell bodies are housed in the ___ horn of teh T1-L2 regions of the spinal cord.
From the lateral horn the preganglionic sympathetic axons travel with somatic motor axons to exit the spinal cord and enter the first the anterior roots and the the ____ spinal nerves..
These preganglionic sympathetic axons remian with the spinal nerve for only a ___ distance before they branch from teh spinal nerve.