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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - HR Operations Deck (79):

HR functions

- personnel sourcing
- hiring
- training
- skill development
- benefits administration
- compliance with applicable national, regional, and local laws



screening the best job candidates, but especially making a formal offer to the best candidate


Staffing and Employment activities

- clearly design or define a job
- job analysis to look at the areas of knowledge, skills, and abilities (competencies) needed by the job
- tasks necessary to perform the job (a task is a typically defined unit of work - a set of activities needed to produce a job)
- a job usually includes several roles (set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job)
- job descriptions to describe a job and include lists of the general tasks, functions, and/or responsibilities of a position, whereas competencies list the abilities needed to conduct those tasks, functions, and/or responsibilities



- an agreement between an employer and an employee that the employee will provide certain services on the job



- circumstances in which a worker has simultaneous employment with two or more employers for one work situation (typically comes into question with contingent workers as the staffing provider and on-site company both assume different portions of the responsibility for the individual's employment situation
- establish clear boundaries: staffing provider handles recruiting, pay negotiation, insurance coverage, HR issues, onboarding, termination
- employers must also be sure that contingent workers are identified differently in their organization to further illustrate their role vs permanent staff in the organization; issuing separate ID badges, having their email addresses look different, etc.
- create a clear and differentiated benefits plan: clearly detail whether or not contingent, contract, and independent workers will within the plan's remit


Staffing EXAM TIP

- usually called employment, involves 3 activities: human resource planning, recruitment, and selection


Employee Relations

- the body of work concerned with maintaining employer-employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale
- offers consultation, facilitation, and resolution strategies for workplace issues
- assists in communications between employees and supervisors, corrective action and planning, disciplinary actions, and explanation and clarification of policies and procedures


Records Management

- a set of activities required for systematically controlling the creation, distribution, use, maintenance, and disposition of recorded information maintained as evidence of business activities and transactions


Compensation and Benefits

- the monetary value you give to your employee in return for their services
- all forms of pay going to employees and arising from their employment
- good pay management = the implementation of guidelines that avoid the practice of allowing red circle rates of pay (paying wages above the range maximum) or green circle rates (paying wages below the range minimum)


Training and Development

- bettering the job performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings
- training = the process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs
- development = the act of encouraging employees to acquire new or advanced skills, knowledge, and viewpoints by providing learning facilities and avenues where such new ideas can be applied


Health, Safety, and Security

- "occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards)


HR Research

- detailed analysis on the current development and management issues wih the real-life case studies to enable the formulation and implementation of the strategy practice within the current organization


HR Generalists and Specialists

- specialist: develops expertise in a specific HR discipline
- generalist: the HR jack-of-all-trades


HR Generalist broad-spectrum responsibilities

- staffing and recruitment; employee training and development; compensation and benefits; personnel policies and procedures; employee relations; workplace safety and security


HR Specialist sample jobs

- workforce planning and employment; HR development; total rewards; employee and labor relations; risk management; metrics management; HRIS, global human resources; organizational development


Multi-Functional HR Department

- deals with 6 functional areas: recruitment, employee relations, compensation and benefits, compliance, safety, training and development


Organizational Strategy

- the sum of actions a company intends to take to achieve long-term goals



- a written declaration of an organization's core purpose and focuse that normally remains changed over time
- serve as filters to separate what is important from what is not
- clearly state which markets will be served and how
- communicate a sense of intended direction to the entire organization



- an aspirational description of what an organization would like to achieve or accomplish in the mid-term or long-term future
- intended to serve as a clear guide for choosing current and future courses of action



- important or lasting beliefs shared by the members of a culture about what is good or bad and desirable or undesirable
- influence a person's behavior and attitude
- serve as board guidelines in all situations
- common: fairness, innovation, community involvement


Organizational Culture

- a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefes, which governs how people behave in organizations
- strong influence on the people in the organization and dictate how they dress, act, and perform their jobs



- an inherited, established, or customary pattern of thought, action, or behavior
- a belief or story or body of beliefs or stories relating to the past that are commonly accepted as historical though not verifiable


Unwritten Procedures

- behavioral constraints imposed in organizations or societies that are not voiced or written down
- examples: unwritten and unofficial organizational hierarchies, organizational culture, and acceptable behavioral norms governing interactions between organizational members



- personal information shared with an attorney, physician, therapist, or other individual generally cannot be divulged to third parties without the express consent of the client
- ethical duty



- rooted in common law
- the right to be free from secret surveillance and to determine whether, when, how, and to whom one's personal or organizational information is to be revealed
- 4 categories: physical, informational, decisional, dispositional


Employee Records

- the application for employment and records that are used or have been used to determine an employee's qualifications for promotion, compensation, termination, or disciplinary action


Company Data

- 4 areas: sales (revenue, profit, bottom line), finance (cash flow reports, prodiction reports, budget variance analysis), marketing, HR (employees)


Personal Data

- any information relating to an identified or identifiable individual


Business Functions (EXAM TIP)

- One of the common complaints of executives is that HR people do not understand the business; they do not know what is required to make a profit or how to speak the language of business


Business Function

- Any set of activities performed by the department that is initiated by an event, transform information, materials or business commitments, and procedures and output`


Finance and Accounting

- accounting: responsible for preparing the financial statements, maintaining the general ledger, paying bills, billing customers, managing payroll, doing cost accounting, performing financial analysis, and more
- financial: manages money, including planning, organizing, auditing, accounting for and controlling its company's finances; also usually produces financial statements



- the administration of business practices to create the highest level of efficiency possible within an organization
- concerned with converting materials and labor into goods and services as efficiently as possible to maximize the profit of an organization
- outcome is the harvesting of value from assets owned by a business



- the division of a business that is responsible for selling products or providing services
- partnered with marketing in a reciprocating relationship



- the management process through which goods and services move frmo concept to the customer
- 4 Ps: identification/selection/development of a PRODUCT; determination of PRICE; selection of distribution channel to reach customer's PLACE; development/implementation of PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY


Business Reporting

- an organizational structure defines how activities such as task allocation, coordination, and supervision are directed toward the achievement of organizational aims


Flat organizational structure

- "horizontal" organization or delayering
- few or no levels of middle management between staff and executives
- advantages: elevates employees' level of responsibility, removes excess layers of management, which improves the coordination and speed of communication, encourages an easier decision-making process between employees
- disadvantages: employees often lack a specific boss to report to which creates confusion and possible power struggles among management; often produces many generalists and no specialists, specific job functions of employees may not be clear, may limit long-term growth of organization, management may decide against new opportunities in an effort to maintain the structure


Functional organizational structure

- each portion of the organization is grouped according to its purpose
- works well for small businesses where each department can rely on the talent and knowledge of its workers and support itself
- drawback: the coordination and communication between departments can be restricted by the organizational boundaries of having the various departments working separately


Divisional organizational structure

- used in larger companies that operate in a wide geographic area or that have separate smaller organizations within the umbrella group to cover different types of products or market areas
- needs can be met more rapidly and more specifically
- communication is inhibited because employees in divisions are not working together
- costly because of size and scope


Matrix organizational structure

- hybrid of divisional and functional structure
- allows for the benefits of functional and divisional structures to exist in one organization
- can create power struggles because most areas of the company will have dual managers (a functional manager and a product or divisional manager) working at the same level and covering some of the same managerial territory


Functional Departmentalization EXAM TIP

- the advantage of functional departmentalization is that it promotes skill specialition
- the disadvantages are that it reduces communication and cooperation between departments


HR Policies and Procedures

- policies = continuing guidelines on the approach the organization intends to adopt in managing its people
- provide the outline by which employees are likely to behave in the workplace


HR Policies EXAM TIP

- serve 3 major purposes: to reassure employees they will be treated fairly and objectively, to help managers make rapid and consistent decisions, and to give managers the confidence to resolve problems and defend their decisions


ADA HR policy

- to comply with ADA and ADAAA, attain diversity goals, access a larger labor pool, and take advantage of tax incentives, most employers adopt a written policy with a formal comprehensive approach to employing people with disabilities


EEO HR policy

- requires covered employers to inform employees of their right to be free from workplace discrimination and retaliation
- requires employers to post workplace notices; covered employers typically include a policy statement on equal employment opportunity in employee handbooks and other sources of workplace policies distributed to employees


Progressive Discipline policy

- a series of increasingly severe penalties for repeated offenses, typically beginning with counseling or a verbal warning
- useful tool for warding off potential unionization in the non-union setting
- help ensure uniformity and consistency in the administration of disciplinary action and this minimize exposure to discrimination claims
- may hinder an employer's ability to take swift termination action


Employee Handbooks and Policy Manuals

- sets forth your expectations for your employees and describes what they can expect from your company
- typically includes NDAs and conflict-of-interest statements, anti-discrimination policies, compensation, workers' compensation, work schedules, standards of conduct, general employment information, safety and security, computers and technology


Employee Handbooks EXAM TIP

- employers need to use caution in using employee handbooks to prohibit undesirable behavior, especially with respect to social media


HR Metrics

- used to determine the value and effectiveness of HR initiatives, including turnover, training, return on human capital, costs of labor, and expenses per employee
- employee relations metrics to trck: number of grievances, cost of grievances, root cause of grievances, average close time, return on investment (ROI)


Data Compilation Tools

- scanning, data mining, and enterprise-wide software now enable an organization to capture, cross-utilize, and retrive information from diverse sources, including resumes, employment applications, project management records, capability statements, workflow documents, department records, workforce forecasts, business development plans, performance appraisals, succession plans, and employee wish lists
- can be sorted, categorized, and assessed to meet organizational needs
- useful strategic tool in meeting business needs, but also as a tool for enhancing task and team performance, recognizing talent capabilities and development, and furthering business development goals


Data Collection Methods

- measurement just for the sake of providing statistics is never a good idea
- a good approach is to focus on the metrics that affect progress toward business goals
- identify how HR will contribute to achieving long- and short-term goals, and pinpoint which measurements will provide targeted, relevant informtion about how those functions affect business objectives and strategies
- define each HR metric and its formula
- detemine what datamust be collected, what collection methods are available and how the data will be gathered
- decide how often HR metrics information will be collected and reported
- choose what format will be used to report the data and who will receive the report
- review what is being measured on a regular basis to ensure that HR is providing relevant information


Data Measuring EXAM TIP

- reliability refers to the consistency of a measure
- validity refers to whether the research effort actually measures what it is supposed to measure



- organization responsiveness to employee feedback leads to higher retention rates, lower absenteeism, improved productivity, better customer service, and higher employee morale
- three most common types of employee surveys are employee opinion and satisfaction surveys, employee culture surveys, and employee engagement surveys
- employee opinion and satisfaction surveys measure employee views, attitudes, and perceptions of their organization ("climate survey")
- employee culture survey measures the point of view of employees and is designed to assess whether it aligns with that of the organization or its departments
- employee engagement surveys measure employees' commitment, motivation, sense of purpose, and passion for their work and organization



- enables the employer to determine whether an applicant's skills, experience, and personality meet the job's requirements
- helps the employer assess whether an applicant would likely fit in with the corporate culture
- preparing for an interview can help clarify a position's responsibilities



- you can observe what people actually do or say, rather than what they say they do
problems: the role of the observer and what effect the observer has on the people and situations observed, observation can be time-consuming; the ethical dilemmas inherent in observing real-life situations for research purposes


Reporting and Presentation Techniques

- simplicity will ensure that the results of your evaluation are both accessible and understandable
- 2 broad categories of reporting methods: those that are written (annual reports, fact sheets, etc.) and those that are oral/visual (PowerPoint presentation, exhibits, news release, etc.)



- Pareto chart (sorted histogram)
- column chart that shows frequency data
- can create in Excel


Bar Chart/Bar Graph

- chart or graph that presents grouped data with rectangular bars, with lengths proportional to the values they represent


Bar Chart EXAM TIP

- bar charts compare variables by plotting categorical data, whereas pie charts show how categories make up parts of a whole


Impact of Technology on HR

- if HR wants to continue to play a critical role in helping businesses anticipate and manage organizational change, it must have technology at its core
- increase of millenials in the workforce means HR is going to have to embrace and build on technological advancements to meet both employee expectations and business requirements
- talent analytics and workplace analysis will become more commonplace, and companies using the data available to them will be far more competitive
- compliance and risk avoidance are essential principles for HR



- HR portals have the advantage of allowing employees to monitor their own personal information and other company resources from their own computers or other mobile devices


Big Data

- gives HR a fact-based view of the current workforce, identifying emerging trends to businesses can adapt
- predictive analytics allow for better risk-management decisions
- analytics allow recruiters to assess potential employees based on real information; by basing hiring decisions on facts instead of hunches, they can improve the quality and placement of new hires


The Cloud

- both collection and storage of data have always been a big part of HR's function
- hard drive space, piles of paper, filing cabinets, desk drawers
- employee information (tax forms, payroll data, performance reviews, contact information) can be archived and stored in one secure location
HR's challenge will include the need for higher levels of interpretation and broader application of the insights cloud-based systems and Big Data provide


Statutory Reporting Requirements

- federal laws and regulations include statutory recording and reporting requirements in their legislation


OSHA reporting requirements

- OSHA is revising its rules addressing the recording and reporting of occupational injuries and illnesses, incuding the forms employers use to record those injuries and illnesses


ERISA reporting requirements

- the Reporting and Disclosure Guide for Employee Benefit Plans is prepared by DOL's Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA) with assistance from the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)
- intended to be used as a quick-reference tool for certain basic reporting and disclosure requirements under ERISA


ACA reporting requirements

- employers subject to the ACA's 2015 information reporting requirements were given extra time to give these forms to employees and fiel them with the government


Purpose and Function of HRISs

- provides data management and accurate and timely information for decision-making
- streamlines HR operational, managerial, and executive support processes
- increased speed and accuracy when computer software is used instead of manual processes
- increased productivity
- managerial system to gather and provide key data about staffing, turnover, benefits, and regulatory compliance issues
- reports on # of employees, cost to hire, vacant positions, benefits costs, required reports such as EE03, cost of raises and bonuses
- more easily present analysis of compensation, recruiting, accidents, and injuries
- aggregate high-level data for long-range planning such as succession planning
- provides executive planning information for strategic needs such as forecasting, staffing needs assessment, and employee skills assessment
- reduces the amount of time the staff spends on daily transaction activities, such as tracking employee status changes, and leaves them free to work on more planning and strategy aligned with corporate goals


Job Analysis Methods and Job Descriptions

- a process to identify and detemine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job
- should help identify job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions; appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate; minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants; interview questions; selection tests/instruments (e.g. written tests, oral tests, jon simulations); applicant appraisal/evaluation forms; orientation materials for applicants/new hires


Job Analysis and the ADA

- job analysis can be used to define the essential elements of the job, including the physical demans that the work requires
- ADA states no covered entity shall discriminate against a qualified individual with a disability because of the disability of such individual in regard to job application procedures; the hiring, advancement, or discharge of employees; employee compensationl job training; other terms/conditions/privileges of employment
- job analysis information may be helpful in determining what "reasonable accommodations" could be made for an individual to perform the job


Job Analysis and the FLSA

- the FLSA provides an exemption from both minimum wage and overtime pay for employees employed as bona fide executive, administrative, professional, and outside sales employees


Job Analysis and Affirmative Action

- the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) outlines how federal contractors should handle their affirmative action and nondiscrimination obligations for protected veterans and for individuals with disabilities
- electronic applications and inquiries will be handled the same way they are handled for other groups covered by affirmative action
- recordkeeping requirements = 3 years
- requirement for contractors to establish their own schedule for revewing job qualifications
- requirement for employers to achieve specific numeric goals to document compliance
- requirement for contractors to compare the number of individuals with disabilities who apply to the number of those who are hired, and keep records for 3 years for audit purposes
- maintaining an applicant flow log showing the name, race, sex, date of application, job title, interview status, and the action taken for all individuals applying for job opportunities
- maintaining records pertaining to company compensation design and system
- filling EEO-1 and VETS 4212 reports annually


Competency Analysis

- competency-based interviews: an effective means of screening candidates who qualify for the job by targeting the specific competencies required for the position
- skills analysis: identifies the major responsibilities of a job and breaks down each major responsibility into skills or tasks
- full competency analysis or competency map: describes the subskills, supporting knowledge and abilities, attitudes and behaviors, and tools required to perform the job
- skills gap analyses: identify gaps in training programs and employees' skills


Job Descriptions and Job Specifications

- JDs: a broad, general, and written statement of a specific job, based on the findings of the job analysis
- JDs includ duties, purpose, responsibilities, scope, and working conditions, along with the title and name/designation of the person to whom the employee reports
- job specification: a statement of the essential components of a job class, including a summary of the work to be performed, the primary duties and responsibilities, and the minimum qualifications and requirements necessary to perform the essential functions of the job


Job Description Components

- heading information (title, pay grade/range, reporting relationship, hours/shifts, likelihood of overtime or weekend work)
- summary objective of the job (general responsibilities and descriptions of key tasks and their purpose, relationships with customers/coworkers/others, the results expected of incumbent employees
- qualifications (education, experience, training, and technical skills necessary)
- special demands (extraordinary conditions applicable to the job like heavy lifting, exposure to temperature extremes, prolonged standing, travel)
- job duties and responsibilities (what must be performed and accomplished, rather than how)


Why use JDs?

- ensures you're hiring the right people to fill the right position
- sets your organization apart from competition
- communication tools that allow both employees and candidates to clearly understand the expectations of the role, its essential duties, the competencies and responsibilities, and the required educational credentials and experience
- JDs need to evolve and continue to be correctly classified


FLSA job classifications

- exempt: from both minimum wage and overtime pay for employees employed as bona fide executive, administrative, professional, and outside sales employees; also certain computer employees; must meet certain tests regarding their job duties and be paid on a salary basis at not less than $455/week
- nonexempt: entitled to overtime pay (1.5x their regular rate of pay) when they work more than 40 hours in a week)
- independent contractors: workers who have economic independence who are in business for themselves


External HR Service Providers

- outsourcing HR functions
- recruiting firms: recruits new employees for open positions in the workforce
- staffing agencies/temp agencies: help bridge the gap for people stuck between jobs or for businesses that need to fill out the ranks but are having difficulty finding qualified employees
- benefits brokers: provide clients with the most appropriate health insurance policy


Communication Techniques

- workplace communication is the process of exchanging information, both verbal and nonverbal, within an organization
- effective workplace communication ensures all organizational objectives are achieved
- increases productivity and efficiency
- ineffective workplace communication leads to communication gaps between employees, which causes confusion, wastes time, and reduces productivity


Tips for Email Etiquette

- start on a personal note
- tame the emotions
- keep it short and sweet
- read it twice
- if it's a critical email, do not send right away
- master the subject line