Chapter 6 - HR Development and Retention Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - HR Development and Retention Deck (78):

8 federal laws impact this area

- The Copyright Act (1976) - offers protection of "original works" for authors so others may not print, duplicate, distribute, or sell their work
- The Trademark Act (1946) - sets forth the requirements for registering a trademark or service mark
- Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978) - provides guidelines to avoid illegal discrimination in hiring decisions, particularly with regard to the job requirements and selection devices such as written or oral tests, interviews, and ability testing
- Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967) - bans employment discrimination based on age for those 40 and older
- The US Patent Act - established to protect inventions for 20 years; US law grants the inventor the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the invention
- Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964) - bans employment discrimination based on age for those 40 and older
- The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) - prohibits discrimination in employment, public services, public accommodations, and telecommunications for people with disabilities
- Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (1994) - provides instructions for handling employees who are in the reserves and receive orders to report for active duty; also protects the employment, reemployment, and retention rights of anyone who voluntarily or involuntarily serves or has served in the uniformed services


Training and Delivery Format

- training and delivery activities are core functions of the HR department
- the process of training provides skills, abilities, and knowledge that are focused on a specific outcome
- with development activities, there is a longer-term focus that prepares the intended trainee for future job skill or knowledge needs to increase their effectiveness in the organization
- considerations when deciding on methods: subject matter, team vs individual training, self-guided vs guided, number of trainees, geographical restrictions, resources and costs, time frame for the training, traditional or e-learning, conditions and parameters set by recertification requirements, legal issues with the selection of individuals for inclusion in training


Training and Delivery Format - ADDIE model

- one of the most widely used standard processes to determine the need for training, developing the training, and evaluating the outcomes
- Assessment, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation


Training and Delivery Format - Classroom

- facilitator-led classroom training continues to be the most often used approach to training
- usually happens internally through the organization with in-house instructors or vendors, or through a professional organization
- permits the use of several learning methods: presentation, case study, reading, role-playing, exercises, demonstration, and group discussion
- recognize that adults in a classroom setting will have different expectations and learning styles than younger students in a school/college classroom setting
- adult learning principles have a single track focus: trainability, which is concerned with the readiness to learn and its associated motivation


Classroom Learning Method - presentation

- when information needs to be delivered to a group, especially large groups and perhaps at different locations


Classroom Learning Method - case study

- when trainees need to apply the knowledge on the job right away


Classroom Learning Method - reading

- when self-reflection is needed to process the information being disseminated


Classroom Learning Method - role-playing

- when trainees need to practice in a simulation the information or skills being taught and learn skills quickly


Classroom Learning Method - exercises

- when practice is necessary to fully develop the new skills or learning


Classroom Learning Method - group discussion

- when trainees need to have an exchange of experience and information sharing with their other trainees


Classroom Learning Method - demonstration

- when new inforamtion or skills are being presented


Training and Delivery Method - Virtual Classroom

- webinars and programs such as Blackboard are popular internet programs that allow the trainer and the trainees to have real-time chat and electronic file exchanges


Training and Delivery Method - Corporate Universities

- in-house universities to assist their organizations in achieving their strategic employee development goals and to foster individual and organized learning and knowledge
- not universities per se
- does not provide accredited undergraduate and postgraduate degrees
- a corporate university limits its scope to providing job and organizational specific training
- set up for a variety of reasons, but most organizations will have the same basic needs: support a common culture, loyalty, and belonging to a company; organize training as part of the curricula for employees; remain competitive in their industry; retain employees; start and support change in the organization; offer training development to fit the career aspiration goals of employees
- offer value-added training and education to employees, but also help organizations retain and promote key employees


Learning Styles

- all adults have a particular learning style that best suits their ability to learn
- if your job responsibility includes being a presenter or trainer, knowing your own learning style will enhance your ability to adjust your preference of delivery methods so you won't fall into the comfort of just your style and can shift your delivery to meet the needs of all participants


Learning Styles - auditory learners

- tend to benefit most from lecture style
- succeed when directions are read or information is presented and requested verbally because they interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed, and other nuances


Learning Styles - visual learners

- rely on seeing a presentation style
- facial expressions and body language helps them understand the content of what is being taught because they think in pictures, diagrams, charts, videos, computer training, and written directions
- will value to-do lists, flip charts, and written notes


Learning Styles - kinesthetic learners/tactile learners

- learn via a hands-on approach and prefer to explore the physical aspects of learning
- most successful when totally engaged with the learning activity such as in role-playing, practicing, and with topics that can use the senses of feeling and imagining


Learning Curves

- learning and different rates
- factors that determine how quickly an adult will learn: the person's motivation for learning; the person's prior knowledge or experience; the specific knowledge or task that is to be learned; the person's aptitude and attitude about the knowledge or skill to learn


Learning Curves - increasing returns

- when a person is learning something new
- start of curve is slow while the basics are being learned
- learning increases and takes off as knowledge or skills are acquired
- assumes that the individual will continue to learn as time progresses


Learning Curves - decreasing returns

- when the amount of learning increases rapidly in the beginning, and then the rate of learning slows down
- the assumption with this learning curve is that once the learning is achieved, the learning then stops
- occurs when learning routine tasks
- the most common type of learning curve


Learning Curves - s-shaped

- blend of increasing and decreasing turns
- assumption with this learning curve is that the person is learning something difficult, such as problem-solving or critical thinking
- may be slow at the beginning until the person learning becomes familiar with the learning material, and then learning takes off
- cycle continues with slow to fast progression as new material is presented


Learning Curves - plateau

- quick in the beginning then flattens or plateaus
- assumption is that the plateau is not permanent and that with additional coaching, training, and support the person learning can ramp up again
- can be frustrating for the learner if they are not getting the support needed


Training and Delivery Method - Computer-Based Training

- most is self-directed, allowing learners to progress at their own pace, or a timed pace, through a set of training modules
- HR has found that the use of computer-based training programs for compliance and regulatory training needs is not only cost-effective but also helps with the tremendous amount of record-keeping requirements


Computer-Based Training EXAM TIP

- computer-based training is evolving at a rapid pace and becoming the norm for cost-effective delivery for employers; expect the exam to have questions related to the benefits and cons of CBT


Training and Delivery Method - On-the-Job Training (OJT)

- specific training provided to existing employees at the actual job site or desk
- utilizes the actual performance of the task or skill of the job function to be accomplished
- advantages: a "just-in-time" demonstration of expectations in the real environment; opportunity for immediate feedback
- disadvantage: potential safety issues; can be distracting to other coworkers


Training and Delivery Method - Skills Training

- encompasses specific skill sest associated with jobs as identified in job descriptions
- constantly moving target because of the nature of changing workplace requirements
- categories of skills trainings: sales training, technology training, technical skills, quality training, communication skills training, emotional intelligence, basic on-the-job training
- other skills training specifically targeted to supervisory-level positions such as leadership/supervisory skills training, discrimination/harassment prevention training, diversity and ethics training


Training and Delivery Method - Apprenticeships

- relate to a technical skills type of trianing for a specific job position or function
- unions and employer groups will have apprenticeship programs with a set of standards that include an on-the-job training period, some form of learning curriculum that may include classroom instruction, and specific operating procedures with timelines
- the US apprenticeship system is regulated by the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT) of the DOL
- not exempt from FLSA min. wage and OT rules and regs


Training and Delivery Method - Internships

- programs that are normally designed to give students who are in a course of professional studies an opportunity to gain real-time experience in their chosen professional career prior to earning their degree or certification
- students gain valuable exposure to the profession, the industry, and the organization
- organizations develop low-cost access to potential new graduates and the opportunity to observe the intern's performance and "fit" for potential job openings


Training and Delivery Method - Job Rotation

- the shifting of an employee between different jobs
- provides a lot of flexibility for staffing needs for the employer, but also provides an enrichment for the employee with being multiskilled
- has been proven to increase their engagement in their work
- gig assignments - employed for defined short-term engagement and then rotated to another short-term engagement such as an employee with several different skill sets that may be assigned to project teams


Gig Workers EXAM TIP

- you may not use trending terms such as gig assignments and gig workers in your organization, but you should know what they mean for the exam


Training and Delivery Method - Cross Training

- when employees are trained to do more than one job, sometimes several jobs
- flexibility with coverage
- professional development and career growth
- unions have been known not to be in favor of cross-training, as it threatens job jurisdiction and could broaden the job descriptions


Techniques to Evaluate Training Programs

- measuring the effectiveness of the training program
- having objectives identified before the training is necessary for measuring the outcome of a training program
- having a basic understanding of evaluating training and HR programs is helpful for determining the techniques to be used for a particular training program's evaluation


Donald Kirkpatrick's 4 Levels of Evaluating Trainings - Level 1

- the reaction of the participant
- a survey given at the conclusion of the training is the most comon method
- measures the immediate reaction about the training delivery and its environment rather than their level of learning


Donald Kirkpatrick's 4 Levels of Evaluating Trainings - Level 2

- how well participants in the training learned facts, concepts, theories, and behaviors
- normally requires HR professionals or consultants trainged in statistics and studies to interpret the result
- results will indicate the effectiveness of the training


Donald Kirkpatrick's 4 Levels of Evaluating Trainings - Level 3

- the measurement of behavior
- is more difficult to measure because it can be difficult to determine whether behavior changed solely because of the training program
- measurement, observations, interviews, 360-degree feedback instruments, and simulations can be used
- critical indicents performance by the trainee's supervisor might be employed


Donald Kirkpatrick's 4 Levels of Evaluating Trainings - Level 4

- the measurement of results to determine whether the planned effectiveness of the training delivered the desired results
- difficulty is determining whether the training was the sole factor affecting the results
- typically a cost-benefit of return on investment (ROI) follows to substantiate the level 4 results


Evaluating Training Programs

- be objective
- choose techniques that will solicit information from all affected sources, not just the training participants and presenter but also sources affected by the training, which could be other departments, management, and even customers


Evaluating Training Programs - Participant Surveys and Questionnaires (Level 1 Kirkpatrick's model)

- measure the reaction level of trainees by administering participant-written surveys or questionnaires immediately after the training
- oral interview with the trainees
- immediate reaction often measures how people like the training and the environment rather than their level of learning and application
- easiest to administer and used most frequently


Evaluating Training Programs - Pre- and Post-Testing (Level 2 Kirkpatrick's model)

- measures how well trainees learned facts, concepts, theories, ideas, and skills or behavior
- determines how much the trainee's knowledge or skill level has changed because of the training, commonly referred to as reaction and learning


Evaluating Training Programs - Measuring Behavior: After-Action Review

- changes in behavior can be evaluated using a variety of techniques: performance tests, critical incidents, performance appraisals, 360-degree feedback, observations, stimulations
- combining several techniques may provide a truer evaluation of the behavior changes


Evaluating Training Programs - Performance Tests

- administered to training participants and contains actual samples of content that was taught in the training
- measures behavior changes desired for the work environment
- example: conducting an oral scenario interview after an ethics training course and having the trainee role play the suggested behavior response


Evaluating Training Programs - Critical Incidents

- a record of both positive and negative incidents is scored to measure the training's outcomes
- normally completed by the trainee's direct reporting supervisor or manager
- example: where a salesperson concluded their negotiation tactics training, and during an actual new client meeting, the salesperson's manager is present and notes the behaviors that were effective and least effective in the negotiation


Evaluating Training Programs - Performance Appraisals: 360-Degree Feedback

- where trainees, their peers, their direct reports, internal (or even external) customers and suppliers, and other relevant people whose perspectives "count" give feedback about effective behaviors and ineffective behaviors
- zeros in on what specific behavior the trainee would benefit from changing and over time measures how well they changed it
- popular technique used in management and supervisor training in organizations, and is an administrative-intense process that HR is normally intimately involved with


Evaluating Training Programs - Observations

- one of the most validated of the techniques in evaluating changed behavior
- difficulty is in determining the conditions of the observation period and the length of the observation, then pinpointing whether the observer is subjective or biased
- can assess complex performance that is difficult to measure or evaluate by the other techniques


Evaluating Training Programs - Simulations

- training participant performs a simulation of what was learned and applies it in real time on the job
- experiential bridge between the training and its actual application in the world of the trainee's work
- how well the trainee performs can be a measurement of the training's effectiveness on the trainee
- simulations that accurately reflect the work conditions and environment can be costly to construct by way of resources and time


Career Development Practices

- career development is the lifelong individual process that involves planning, managing, learning, and transitions at all ages and stages in work life
- an organized approach used to match employee goals with the business's current and future needs
- individuals are required to be proactive in planning their career progressions and not rely on an organization to direct their career paths
- HR professionals are involved in the development of career pathing, personal development programs, and skill development training in order to enable employees to achieve their career aspirations and goals
- creating a skill inventory database along with work and educational experience of the current workforce is needed in helping the organization assess its current workforce talent
- HR professionals monitor training and development needs and create programs to meet those needs, along with the communication of job progression opportunities
- tracking, monitoring, and providing or aligning resources with regard to the organization's career development practices


Individual Career Development

- self-assess: values, interests, strengths, skills, ambitions
- explore and research: occupational research, industry trends, career options with organization and outside
- create and commit to a plan: decision making, goal setting, action planning
- take action: gain experience, job search tools, networking


Succession Planning

- systematically identifies, assesses, and develops talent as a key component for business success
- includes a focus on identifying, developing, and preparing the placement of high-potential employees for future opportunities
- succession should be developed to anticipate managerial staffing needs or key employee positions that would interrupt the business process if an incumbent were to vacate
- IDs high-risk positions along with known or potentially known vacancy dates
- HR typically responsible for maintaining a candidate database of skills and career development plans, along with monitoring of development activities; also responsible for the sourcing or creation of training needs for candidates and monitoring their continued interest


Succession Planning Typical Steps

- idenfity high-risk psitions
- determine the functions and when the positions will be vacated
- identify competencies required for vacated positions
- perform gap analysis
- design developmental opportunities for each set of competencies
- develop and maintain a candidate pool (recruit from the outside, nominate internal candidates
- track career plan's pverall progress and maintain skills inventory


Career Pathing

- a practice in which an employee charts a course within their organization for his or her career path and career development
- a formalized employee self-assessment tool may be used to assist employees in understanding their areas of strengths and where to hone their areas of development needs or weaknesses
- creates a plan that gains the employee the exposure, experience, and knowledge to move through the various levels of the career aspiration


Career Pathing EXAM TIP

- the importance of career pathing is that employees design and drive their chosen career with input from others; it is vastly different from formal in-company career development programs where selected individuals may be fast-tracked in a career progression such as management training development programs


Dual-Ladder Careers

- allow mobility for employees without requiring that they be placed into the managerial enclave
- mostly associated with technical, medical, engineering, and scientific occupations
- a way to advance employees who are not interested in pursuing a management track
- exhibit one or more of the following characteristics: have substantial technical or professional expertise beyond the basic levels; have licensure or required credentials; are known for innovation; may or may not be well suited to management or leadership roles
- goal is to increase complexity and value to the organization, enabling the organization to increase employee salaries and improve employee retention and satisfaction


Career Counseling

- with career counseling and coaching, the foremost skill that all levels of HR professionals must utilize is helping the employee take ownership and accountability for their careers, not expecting the organization to map out or hand them their personalized career plan on a silver platter
- individual counseling and coaching involves one-on-one discussions about specific direction and needs between an aspiring employee and experienced individuals within the organization who are normally in the career path the employee is intending to pursue
- HR's role is to help the employee sort out their options and engage the resources available to them


Performance Appraisal Methods

- a regular feedback sytem discussing individual employee performance
- ensures that employees are on course for the completion of tasks and goals that are aligned with the organization's goals and that resources and support are provided for the employee to perform such functions
- employees need to know and understand what specific performance is expected of them in performing their jobs and the acceptable behavior
- the most common appraisal method involves just 2 people: the employee and a direct supervisor; in some companies, others are asked to be involved (peers, another level of management, sometimes colleagues in the organization whose job function interacts with the employee - 360-degree feedback appraisals)
- methods for rating the performance: narrative, management by objectives (MBOs), behaviorally anchored ratings (BARS), category rating, comparative ratings with others in like functions


Performance Appraisal Purposes

- providing feedback and coaching
- justifying the allocation of rewards and career opportunities
- helping with employee career planning and development plans


Performance Appraisal Methods EXAM TIP

- most employers use a blended method approach to performance appraisals, and using the MBO method does not require an employee to be in a management job


Performance Appraisal Methods - Category Rating

- the least complex of the methods
- the evaluator simply checks a level of rating on an evaluation form
- three types: forced choice (the evaluator is required to check 2 out of 4 statements on the eval form, one that the employee is "most like" and one that the employee is "least like"); graphic scale (the appraiser checks a place on the scale for the categories of tasks and behaviors that are listed); checklist (the evaluator is provided with a set list of statements/words to describe performance


Performance Appraisal Methods - Comparative Methods

- employee performance is compared directly with others in the same job, group, or function
- will rank the employees in a group, causing a forced distribution known as a bell curve
- obvious fault: suggesting that a percentage of employees will fall below expectations


Performance Appraisal Methods - Ranking

- lists all employees in the same job or function, from highest to lowest, performance-wise
- restrictive because the difference between the employees ranked and their performance output is not described
- bias of the evaluator comes into play with this method's effectiveness, and forces a conclusion of better to worse


Performance Appraisal Methods - Paired Comparison

- each of the employees in a group is paired with every other employee and compared, or "toggled," one at a time, using the same scale of performance
- has limits in that the time required to evaluate each pair of employees can be significant within large employee groups


Performance Appraisal Methods - Narrative

- time-consuming for the evaluator but can be the most meaningful to the employee being evaluated
- 3 methods:
- essay format (evaluator writes a short essay-type of narrative describing each employee's performance)
- critical incidents (evaluator is noting dates and details of both good and not-so-good performance incidents throughout the evaluation period)
- field review (HR person will interview the supervisor of the employee group, taking notes about the performances of the supervisor's direct report; compile information and do a comparison ranking for all like positions/employees)


Evaluation Methods - EXAM TIP

- when reading questions pertaining to evaluation methods, read the scenario closely to determine the job function that would best be evaluated using a narrative vs ranking method


Performance Appraisal Method - Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

- describes desirable behavior and undesirable behavior
- examples are then compared with a scale of performance levels for the rating
- works well in circumstances where several employees perform the same functions
- offers a more accurate gauge of performance measurement, provides clearer standards to employees, and has more consistency in rating
- best suited for situations where many employees are performing at the same function


Performance Appraisal Method - Management by Objectives (MBO)

- used by supervisor and employee to mutually identify specific performance goals, derived and aligned with the overall goals and strategies of the organization
- appraisal by results, performance objective setting, mutual goal setting
- helps align an employee's performance and actions with the organization's goals, measuring the accomplishment of goals with the quality and quantity as a scorecard
- when people have a say in goal setting and action plans, it ensures better participation and commitment on the part of the individual and alignment to organizational goals
- using the MBO method in performance evaluation, a foundation must be in place within the organization that includes: a strategic plan; a high level of commitment from employees who are willing to plan and set their own goals; clearly defined objectives that are not ambiguous; measurable performance objectives that specify the desired outcome
- need to ensure that goals are not unachievable or even too easy to reach, which can work against the intention of MBO and actually turn into a demotivator


Performance Management Practices

- the process in which the organization maintains or improves employee job performance utilizing performance tools, coaching/counseling, and feedback
- people (including their skills, their knowledge, their contributions, and their innovations) are the soul of the performance management system and practices


Elements of a Performance Management System

- delegating and planning work
- setting expectations for performance results
- continually monitoring performance
- developing a capacity to perform to new levels for personal and professional growth
- periodically rating performance in a summary fashion
- providing recognition and rewarding good performance


Organizational Values and Goals

- reflect the organization's philosophy and structure
- when organizations establish and clearly communicate their values and strategic goals, employees gain a sense of purpose and have a better understanding of where their job fits in to the priority line
- values are principles and create standards of behavior; they are what is most important in how the organization will conduct business and shape its culture
- values can be positive drivers of behavior or negative drivers causing behavior that may be less than desirable in the workforce


Performance Management Standards

- employees must know and understand what specific performance is expected of them in performing their jobs and associated acceptable behaviors
- performance standards will include behaviors (what does the organization want the employees to do?) and results (what does the organization want employees to produce?)


Employee Performance/Behaviors

- for employees to meet expectations, there should be a direct correlation for them between their job description and the job competencies required, along with the performance plan's goals and behaviors before the work is preformed
- employees need to understand what aspects of their job are critical to its success, in priority order
- what motivates and keeps the employee engaged in producing the expectations of their job?


Ways an organization can foster (high) performance from employees

- nurture a positive work environment
- have employee engagement activities
- be sure management is trained in good performance management methods and understand the legal issues surrounding the methods
- provide continual feedback (the good, the not so good, the ugly); hold monthly performance appraisal meetings rather than just an annual meeting
- provide the resources and tools needed for employees to do their jobs and exceed standards
- be consistent in management practices
- show sincerity toward employee development and assist employees with resources


Goal Setting - SMART method

- using the SMART outline and using action verbs will guide the objective of the goal's learning

- Specific: be specific on what the outcome or end result is to be
- Measurable: have a yardstick to measure the specific intention
- Attainable: make the goal achievable
- Realistic: make the goal realistic to achieve in hte time frame and relevant to the person's job
- Timed: specify whether this goal has an implementation gate or is ongoing

- be careful of the smorgasbord effect, whcih means getting so excited about creating SMART goals that too many are put into the employee's goal sheet; this can dilute all other goals


Performance Improvement Plans (PIPs)

- when an employee is not meeting the minimum requirements of their job, or perhaps their behaviors are producing issues within the workgroup, it is the supervisor's responsibility to have a "painfully honest discussion" that shifts the supervisory tactics to the disciplinary realm
- HR's role is to help provide the guidance and expertise needed to set up the disciplinary process to be fair and equitable and to make sure it is applied uniformly and consistently throughout the organization
- PIP is a de facto document in writing that makes no misunderstanding as to what it is the employee is to correct and by when
- a must is the consequence
- HR will be skilled in asserting what the appropriate consequence is and determining whether the time frame and requested changes are reasonable and attainable



- though normally used as a last resort to correct deficient performance and behavior, PIPs are an opportunity to make it perfectly clear to the employee what performance is expected in order to maintain their employment in the current job


Employee Retention

- the collection of programs and techniques that result in good and productive employees staying at your organization, engaged
- retaining employees means the employer does not have to undertake the expenses involved with recruiting, hiring, training, and possibly relocating


Importance of Retention

- an improved economy rebounding from a recession, causing the job market to improve
- retirement of the Baby Boomers and a likely shortage in skills/knowledge-based labor
- an increase of global competition
- economic factors resulting in cost of living substantially increasing
- technological advancements
- generational motivation differences


Methods for Employee Retention

- it is the employee relationships to the organization, including its structure, management, job recognition, and culture, that are mostly connected to retention
- having tangible forms of recognition for a job well done and milestones of commitment are good and necessary, though providing employees with sincere feedback and appreciation that the work they do makes a difference is a reward that tops the retention lists
- additional forms of relationships for employee retention involve even the HR department, its policies, the perceived fairness, and assistance to the employee


Employee Suggestion Programs

- an employee engagement and involvement strategy that goes along with employee retention
- when employees feel their opinion counts, or their perspective is heard, they are more likely to turn away from third-party representation
- it's important that employee suggestions are acknowledged and given serious consideration and that responses are provided in a timely manner


Employee Focus Groups

- a large cross-section of employee opinions, using employees from various units, functions, and facilities
- survey instruments allow input from the entire employee population
- focus group provides the opportunity to have two-way dialogue for clarity and probing purposes