CHAPTER 3 JUDGMENT AND PROPOSITION Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPTER 3 JUDGMENT AND PROPOSITION Deck (60):
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Judgment

the second act of intellect by which it pronounces the agreement or disagreement between terms or ideas.

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Enunciation

is the pronouncement or a mental judgment

is an assertion, a statement or a claim

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Proposition

judgment expressed in sentence or a sentence pronouncing the agreement or disagreement between terms.

It is always a sentence

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Types of Proposition (aristotelian)

Categorical

Hypothetical

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Categorical Proposition

direct judgment or direct assertion of the agreement or disagreement of two terms in an absolute manner.

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Hypothetical Proposition

does not express a direct judgment, rather a relation between two judgments, in which the truth of one depends on the other.

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What are the type of Categorical Proposition?

Condition (if-then)
Disjunctive (either-or)
Conjunctive (and)

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What are the elements of a categorical proposition?

Matter - is the sense or meaning of the proposition

Form - is the structure of the proposition whether it states an affirmation or negation of the relation

Copula - The term expressing the mental act which pronounces the agreement or disagreement between the subject and the predicate

Subject - the term designating the idea about which something is affirmed or denied

Predicate - the term designating the idea which is affirmed or denied of the subject

Quantifier - expresses the application or extension of the proposition

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Matter

is the sense or meaning of the proposition

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Form

s the structure of the proposition whether it states an affirmation or negation of the relation

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Copula

The term expressing the mental act which pronounces the agreement or disagreement between the subject and the predicate

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Subject

the term designating the idea about which something is affirmed or denied

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Predicate

the term designating the idea which is affirmed or denied of the subject

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Quantifier

expresses the application or extension of the proposition

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Absolute Properties of Categorical Proposition

Quality and Quantity

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Quality of Proposition

Affirmative
Negative

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Quantity of Proposition

Universal - universal term (all, every, each, no, nobody)
Particular - some, many, few
Singular - applies only to one individual
Collective - applies to a class or a group

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A

Universal Affirmative

Su + Pp
Su + Ps; Su +Pu

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E

Universal Negative

Su - Pu

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I

Particular Affirmative

Sp + Pp

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O

Particular Negative

Sp - Pu

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Opposition

is the relation existing between propositions having the same subject and predicate but different quality or quantity or both.

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What are the type of Opposition?

Contradiction
Contrariety
Sub-contrariety
Sub-alternation

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Contradiction

opposition existing between two propositions having the

same subject and predicate
different quality and quantity

A & O
E & I

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Contrariety

same subject and predicate
same quantity
different quality

opposition bet 2 universals

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Sub-contrariety

same subject and predicate
same quantity
different quality

opposition between the two particulars

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Sub alternation

Same subj and pred.
same quality but different extension or quantity

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Equivalence

is the similarity in terms of meaning between propositions

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Eduction

the process of immediate inference in which from a proposition taken as true, another proposition which is implied in it is derived.

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What are the two kinds of Eduction?

Obversion and Conversion

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Obversion

the derived proposition, while retaining its subject of the original proposition, has, for its predicate, the contradictory of the original predicate.

All corrupt practices are not moral acts
All corrupt practices are immoral acts

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how are the original and the derived proposition of OBVERSION called?

Obvertend -Original
Obverse - derived

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Conversion

the derived proposition takes for its subj the pred of the original proposition and for the pred the orig subj

All roses are flowers
Some flowers are roses

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how are the original and the derived proposition of CONVERSION called?

Convertend
Converse

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What is the converse of proposition A?

A or I

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Converse of Proposition E?

E

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Converse of Proposition I?

I

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Converse of Proposition O?

Invalid

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Varieties of Categorical Proposition

1. Single
1.1 Simple
1.2 Composite
1.2.1 Complex
1.2.2 Modal
1.2.2.1 Necessary
1.2.2.2 Possible
1.2.2.3 Impossible
1.2.2.4 Contingent
2. Multiple
2.1 Overtly Multiple
2.1.1 Copulative
2.1.2 Adversative
2.1.3 Relative
2.1.4 Causal
2.1.5 Comparative
2.2 Covertly Multiple
2.2.1 Exclusive
2.2.2 Exceptive
2.2.3 Reduplicative and Specificative

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Single

contains only one sentence in construction

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Multiple

Has two or more sentences

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Simple

the subj and predicate are simple terms

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Composite

Maybe Complex or Modal

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Complex

the subj or predicate or both are complex terms

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Modal

When the copula expresses the mode of the proposition

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Necessary

Expresses the that pred necessarily belongs to the subject

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Possible

expresses that the pred may or can belong to the subject

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Impossible

expresses that the pred cannot and will not belong to the subject

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Contingent

expresses that the pred need not belong to the subj

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Overtly Multiple

has two or more sentences

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Copulative

composed of two or more sentences combined in a grammatical way

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Adversative

contains two sentences united in opposition

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Relative

expresses a relation of time and place bet. 2 sentences

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Causal

regarded as abridged syllogism
composed of two sentences one of which is the reason or the cause of the other

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Comparative

expresses comparison bet 2 subjs and the degree of the comparison whether one is greater or lesser or equal to each other

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Covertly Multiple

appears to be single but in reality are multiple

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Exclusive

contains particles like only, alone, and other similar terms which indicates the exclusion of any pred from the subj or vice versa

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Exceptive

contains particles like except save and other similar terms which indicate that a portion of the pred does not apply to the subj or vice versa

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Reduplicative

the cause bet. the subj and pred is essential

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specificative

the connection bet. the subj and pred is accidental