Chapter 3 Pt 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Pt 2 Deck (25):
1

In an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom.

hydroxyl group (OH)

2

Organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties.

Isomer

3

An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar convalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic. These molecules include fats, phospholipids, and steroids and are insoluble in water.

Lipid

4

In an organic molecule, a carbon bonded to three hydrogens.

Methyl group (CH3)

5

A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer

Monomer

6

The simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CH2O. These molecules are the building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides.

Monosaccharide

7

A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular structures and activities. Examples of these molecules include DNA and RNA.

Nucleic Acid

8

An organic monomer consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. These molecules are the building blocks of nucleic acids.

Nucleotide

9

A chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells.

Organic Compound

10

The covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by a dehydration reaction.

Peptide bond

11

A functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms.

Phosphate group (PO4)

12

A molecule made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving the molecule a nonpolar hydrophobic tail and a polar hydrophilic head. These molecules form bilayers that function as biological membranes.

Phospholipid

13

A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain.

Polymer

14

A polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.

Polypeptide

15

A carbohydrate polymer consisting of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides (sugars) linked by dehydration synthesis.

Polysaccharide

16

The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain

Primary Structure

17

A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure.

Protein

18

The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.

Quaternary structure

19

A type of molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

20

Pertaining to molecules whose hydrocarbon chains contain the maximum number of hydrogens and therefore have no double covalent bonds. These molecules solidify at room temperature.

Saturated fatty acid

21

The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.

Secondary Structure

22

A storage polysaccharide found in the roots of plants and certain other cells; a polymer of glucose.

Starch

23

A type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached; examples are cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.

Steroid

24

The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.

Tertiary structure

25

Pertaining to molecules whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and therefore have one or more double covalent bonds. These molecules do not solidify at room temperature.

Unsaturated fatty acid