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1

Neurons

Individual nerve cells that make up the nervous system

2

Nerves

Large bundles of axons

3

Central nervous system (CNS)

Brain and spinal cord

4

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Intricate network of nerves carries information to and from the CNS

Somatic nervous system
Automatic nervous system

5

Spinal Cord (how many of what nerves)

Spinal nerves (31 pairs) [sensory/motor]
Cranial nerves (12 pairs) [direct from brain]

6

Somatic nervous system (SNS)

Controls voluntary behavior like dancing or throwing a frisbee

7

Automatic nervous system (ANS)

Controls automatic functions like internal organs and glands
Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system

8

Sympathetic nervous system

"Fight or flight"
Longed-for job interview

Dilated pupil, inhibits tears, inhibits salivation, activated sweat glands, increase heart rate, increase respiration, inhibits digestion, release of adrenaline, release of sugar from liver, relaxes bladder

9

Parasympathetic nervous system

Quiets body
Produces opposite effects of sympathetic nervous system

Constricts pupil, stimulates tears, stimulates salivation, inhibits heart rate, constricts respiration, constricts blood vessels, stimulates digestion, contracts bladder

10

Parts of a neuron

Dendrites
Soma
Axon
Axon terminals

11

Three complementary perspectives on behavior

Biological
Psychological
Sociocultural

12

Biological perspective on behavior

All our behavior can be explained through physiological processes

Biopsychological view: behavior is the result of internal physical, chemical, and biological processes
Evolutionary view: behavior is the result of evolution

13

Psychological perspective on behavior

Behavior is shaped by individual psychological processes including behaviorism, cognitive behaviorism, cognition, humanism, and psychoanalysis

Behaviorist view: behavior is shaped and controlled by ones environment
Cognitive view: behavior results from mental processing of information
Psychodynamic view: behavior is directed by unconscious forces
Humanistic view: behavior is guided by self-image and the need for personal growth

14

Sociocultural perspective on behavior

Sociocultural view: behavior is influenced by ones social and cultural context
cultural relativity: behavior must be judged relative to values of the culture in which it occurs
social norms: rules that define acceptable and expected behavior

15

Acetylcholine (main mode of action, function in the brain, effects of imbalance)

Excitatory
Participates in movement, autonomic, function, learning, and memory
Deficiency may play a role in Alzheimer's

16

Dopamine (main mode of action, function in the brain, effects of imbalance)

Excitatory
Participates in motivation, reward, planning of behavior
Deficiency may lead to Parkinson's disease, reduced feelings of pleasure, excess may lead to schizophrenia

17

GABA (main mode of action, function in the brain, effects of imbalance)

Inhibitory, major inhibitory effect in the central nervous system; participates in moods
Deficiency may lead to anxiety

18

Glutamate (main mode of action, function in the brain, effects of imbalance)

Excitatory
Major excitatory effect in the central nervous system; participates in learning and memory
Excess may lead to neuron death and autism; deficiency may lead to tiredness

19

Norepinephrine (main mode of action, function in the brain, effects of imbalance)

Excitatory
Participates in arousal, vigilance, and mood
Excess may lead to anxiety

20

Seratonin (main mode of action, function in the brain, effects of imbalance)

Inhibitory
Participates in mood, appetite, and sleep
Deficiency may lead to depression and/or anxiety

21

Hebb's rule

The capacity of our brains to change in response to experience

22

Neurogenesis

Production of new brain cells

23

Biopsychology

Locate parts of the brain that control particular mental or behavioral functions

24

Computed tomographic scanning (CT)

Specialized x-ray

25

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Strong magnetic field (not an X-ray)

26

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

Detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain

27

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Provides more detailed images of activity both near the surface and below

28

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Makes brain actively visible

29

Gray matter

Spongy tissue made up mostly of cell bodies
70% of the neurons in the CNS

30

Corticalization

Increase in size and wrinkling of the cortex