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1

Psyche

Mind

2

Logos

Knowledge or study

3

Psychology definition

Scientific study of behavior (overt) and mental processed (covert)
Behavior can be directly observed
Mental processes cannot be directly observed

4

What are the four goals of psychology

Describing behavior
Understanding behavior - causes
Predicting behavior
Controlling behavior

5

Pseudo

False

6

Pseudopsychilogies

Any unfounded "system" that resembles psychology and is NOT based on scientific testing

7

Phrenology

Personality traits revealed by the shape of the skull and bumps on your head

8

Palmistry

Lines on your hands (palms) predict future and reveal personality

9

Graphology

Personality revealed by your handwriting

10

Astrology

The positions of the stars and planets at birth determine your personality and affect your behavior

11

Four examples of pseudopsychologies

Phrenology
Palmistry
Graphology
Astrology

12

Barnum effect

The tendency to accept certain information as true, even when the information is so vague as to be worthless (ex. Horoscopes)
Tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if stated in general terms, always have a little something for everyone

13

Confirmation bias

When we remember or notice things that confirm our expectations and forget the rest

14

Uncritical acceptance

Tendency to believe positive or unflattering descriptions of yourself

15

The scientific method (6 basic elements)

1. Making observations
2. Defining a problem
3. Proposing a hypothesis
4. Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis
5. Building a theory
6. Publishing results

16

Operational definitions

A definition on how we decide to measure our variables
Usually hundreds of ways to measure a variable

17

Wilhelm Wundt (1879)

Set up first lab to study conscious experience in Germany
Systematically observed and measured various stimuli...he studied how sensations, images, and feelings combine to make up personal experience
Introspection: looking inward (examining and reporting your thoughts feelings etc)

18

Edward Titchener

Wundt's ideas brought to the US by Titchener and renamed Structuralism
School of thought concerned with analyzing the structure of mental life (sensations and personal experience) into basic elements or building blocks

19

William James (1890)

Wrote "Principles of Psychology"
Broadened psychology to include animal behavior, religious experience, abnormal behavior
Functionalism: how the mind functions to adapt us to our environment
Functionalists admired Darwin and his theory of natural selection, animals keep features through evolution that help them adapt to environments

20

John B. Watson

Studied relationship between stimuli and responses
Anyone can be anything
Little Albert

21

B.F. Skinner

Studied animals almost exclusively
Believed actions controlled by rewards and punishments
Skinner Box

22

Psychoanalytic psychology

Behavior is influenced by unconscious wishes, thoughts, and desires, esp. sex and aggression
Early childhood experiences affect adult personality
Created by Freud

23

Repression

When memories, thoughts, or impulses are unconsciously held out of awareness
"Freudian slips"
Freud believed that all thoughts, emotions, and actions are determined

24

Freudian slips

Repression

25

Humanism

Goal: to study unique aspects of the person
Focus: human experience, problems, ideals, and potentials
Free will (contrast with Freud and skinner)
Each person has innate goodness and is able to make free choices
Key names: carl rogers, Maslow

26

Four non experimental research methods

Naturalistic observation
Correlational method
Clinical method
Survey method

27

Naturalistic observation

Observing a person or an animal in the natural environmental context
Provides descriptions of behavior
Observer bias
Observer effect (Hawthorne effect)

28

Correlational studies

Determining the degree of a relationship between two events, measures, or variables

29

The clinical method

Case study
Natural clinical tests: natural events, such as accidents, that provide psychological data

30

6 neurotransmitter examples

Acetylcholine
Dopamine
GABA
Glutamate
Norepinephrine
Serotonin