Flashcards in Chapter 3: The Interwar Years Deck (45):
League of Nations
OBJECTIVE: preserve the peace of the world through international cooperation, arbitration, and collective security
members of the LoN promised not to go to war unless they first submitted their disputes to a 3rd party for a ruling
members of the LoN had to help any member that was the victim of aggression.
hoped that war would be prevented through sanctions
Group of 7
7 painters who rejected realism and used bold strokes, heavy paint, and contrast in their paintings. they only painted the canadian landscape - particularly the north
an artist & author who sketched and painted scenes of forests around Victoria, and studied the local aboriginal culture. She won the Governor General's award for her novel Klee Wyck
airplane: used for travel and for carrying cargo other than weapons
radio: used for information and entertainment purposes. Foster Hewitt was a famous hockey radio broadcaster
car: mobilized canadians better. major factor in the development of suburbs
1919 Immigration Act
closed Canada to people coming from enemy countries
Canada was losing people faster than they were coming in due to the immigration act so King lowered barriers to European immigration who came by boat. Entered Canada through the port of Halifax, called Pier 21
Chanak Crisis 1922
British sent troops to Turkey because they were scared Turkey would occupy the British controlled port of Chanak which would give Turkey control of a waterway that had easy access to Europe through the Balkans.
SIGNIFICANCE: Canada did not automatically send troops in support. first time Canada refused unconditional support for British imperial war policies
Halibut Treaty 1923
Canada and the US signed a treaty to protect the halibut on the coast of BC and Alaska.
SIGNIFICANCE: step toward Canadian autonomy in foreign affairs since it was only signed by a Canadian & an American (before, a British official always signed treaties)
Imperial Conference 1926
made it known that Canada was in no way subordinate to Great Britain
acknowledged that dominions were autonomous communities within the British empire, and that the Governor General was on a representative of the monarchy
Statue of Westminster 1931
recognized in law the report that had made Canada an autonomous dominion that could make its own laws.
on december 11th, 1931, Canada became a sovereign state as part of the British Commonwealth of Nations
fear of communism. people found with communist literature were sent to prison
workers got no employment insurance, compensation for injuries on the job, or pensions so they formed trade unions to improve housing, job training programs, and higher pay
Winnipeg General Strike 1919
30,000 workers walked off the job in Winnipeg. the strike spread from industry to industry and became a general strike causing all services to shut down. many feared it to be a beginning of a communist revolution
winnipeg officials banned all demonstrations, people born outside canada who was suspected of trying to cause a revolution could be arrested and deported without a hearing or trial. government sent troops with machine guns to Winnipeg.
strike drew attention to social and economic problems and got labour leaders more involved in politics. pro-worker parties became popular
June 21st, 1919, a huge crowd gathered to watch a parade protesting the arrest of strike leaders as part of the Winnipeg strike. it turned into a riot and the mounted police killed 1 man, injured 30, and arrested hundreds
Cooperative Commonwealth Federation
a pro-worker party that sprung up and later turned into the NDP we know of today
King-Byng Crisis 1926
William Lyon Mackenzie King & the liberals won less seats than the Conservatives but King refused to resign. the prime minister may stay in power if they have the majority of votes in the HoC (King had votes of Progressive Party)
King asked Governor General Lord Byng to dissolve parliament for a new election when he felt he was losing support of the Progressives. HOWEVER, Byng thought King should have resigned and refused to dissolve parliament. Byng refused the request, and King resigned.
SIGNIFICANCE: first time a Governor General had outright refused the request of a PM to dissolve parliament
Women's Christian Temperance Union
tried to get the government to ban all production, sale, and consumption of alcohol because they believed alcohol was evil and the cause of abuse, poverty, diseases, etc
the ban on alcohol
people who waited at the borders to illegally supply alcohol to the thirsty people
Canada's first female member of parliament. she called for prison reform and was appointed to the Senate but died before the appointment was fulfilled
composed of 5 Alberta women: Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Henrietta Muir Edwards, Louise McKinney, and Irene Parlby
first woman judge, but lawyers challenger her right to preside in her own court because they claimed that women were not considered "persons"
Famous 5 appealed to the Supreme Court whether women were considered "persons" and the supreme court said no. They appealed to the British Privy Council (highest court of Canada) and they said that it did include women.
a time of massive unemployment, bankruptcies, climatic disasters, and widespread poverty. as a result, attitudes toward the poor began to change and a social safety net created
CAUSES: overproduction, reliance on exporting staple products, dependence on the US, stock market crash, economic protectionism & tariffs, international debt after WWI
industries expanded and huge supplies of manufactured goods were produced but stockpiled because of overproduction. unsold goods caused factory owners to panic so they slowed their production and laid off workers. workers had less money so sales slowed
Reliance on Exporting Staple Products
Canada's economy depended heavily on staples - the most important exports like timber, crops, minerals. Canadian wheat farmers grew record quantities for crops, but so did other countries so competition was fierce and there as a lot of unsold wheat left over.
then the dust bowl hit with terrible droughts and crops died, so the economy failed in a lot of ways
Dependence on the USA
40% of canadian exports were sold to America and when their economy failed, ours was soon to follow
Stock Market Crash
crashed on Black Tuesday on october 29th, 1929
Buying on Margin
investors borrowed money with the hope that in a short time the stock would rise significantly. this whole process was known as speculation. as stocks began to decrease in value, investors began to worry began to sell their stocks, so the prices of stocks continued to drop dramatically.
money collected on goods coming into a country
Economic Protectionism and Tariffs
US did not need imports from other countries so it became protectionist by protecting its home industries from competition of foreign goods by discouraging imports through tariffs.
International Debt After WWI
USA lent money to nations after WWI but these nations could only pay back the money by selling exports. When the USA became protectionist international trade was reduced and those countries lost the ability to pay back their loans
Franklin Roosevelt introduced it for the Americans after hoover refused to introduce relief measures. it was a set of relief programs meant to put Americans back to work
John Maynard Keynes
proposed that governments should spend their way out of the Depression.
governments could get out of the depression by borrowing money to be repaid in the future, and spending it on huge employment projects
Riding the Rails
hitching a rail on freight trains by riding on the cars. initially, people rode to find jobs, but when there were none to be found, people started riding around the country because they had nothing else to do
provided vouchers to people who qualified that would be exchangeable for goods like food or other essential items. it was deliberately kept lower than the lowest paying job so that people would try to find a job. however, it only resulted in people starving and diseases because pogey was not sufficient
Unemployment Relief Camps
set up by R.B Bennet for single unemployed men to labour on public work projects such as building roads, for 20 cents per day + room and board.
Bennet's New Deal
called for: progressive taxation, maximum work hours, minimum wage, regulation of working conditions, unemployment insurance, health and accident insurance, pension plan, agricultural support, marketing board to regulate wheat prices
many people thought that it was too little too late
thousands of relief camp workers went from Vancouver to Ottawa to protest for work with wages and real jobs.
the on-to-ottawa trekkers were stopped by the RCMP in Regina and a riot broke out