Chapter 5: Post War (1946-1980) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Post War (1946-1980) Deck (40):
1

United Nations

created with the failure of the LoN.

4 goals: keep world peace & prevent new wars; encourage cooperation among nations; defend human rights and help to promote equality; improve the standard of living for all nations

2

General Assembly

all member states are represented, each having one vote. a 2/3rds majority is required to pass a decision

3

UNSC

responsible for maintaining world peace and has the power to force the members to carry out its decisions. P5 (China, France, UK, US, Russia) have veto power

4

Secretariat

made up of thousands of clerks, interpreters, translators, and technical experts

5

International Court of Justice

the World Court located in the Hague, makes rulings on disputes submitted by members and gives legal advice to the Assembly and the UNSC

6

Bipolar World

division between 2 new superpowers: the US and the soviet union

7

Cold War

an ideological struggle between the US and the Soviet Union fought using propaganda, espionage, and economic and political pressures. it was a fight for power and influence on a global scale

8

Containment

American strategy to contain communism by preventing it from spreading to other countries. Americans tried to win non-aligned countries and the Soviets did the same

9

Domino Theory

feared that once one country became communist, the surrounding ones would follow. Americans believed that European countries would fall, one by one, to the Soviets

10

Satellite States

6 countries controlled by the Soviet Union, that were absolutely controlled by the Soviet Union.

11

Iron Curtain

in response to the creation of these satellite states, Churchill declared that an Iron curtain had fallen across Europe dividing communist and non-communist states

12

Truman Doctrine

American policy to support free peoples around the world who were resisting communist rule by providing economic aid and military support to people threatened by communism

13

Marshall Plan

offered billions of dollars in aid to war-torn European economies to help them resist the advance of communism

14

Gouzenko Affair

Igor Gouzenko asked Canada for political asylum in return for giving the Canadian government documents that proved that the Soviet Union was operating two spy rings in Canada. it marked the Gouzenko Affair marked the beginning of the Cold War in Canada because there was potentially a communist threat in Canada

15

Red Scare

massive fear of communism that caused the RCMP to carry out illegal and secret inquiries, and potential immigrants were denied entry to Canada

16

Division of Germany

after WWII, the Allies agreed to split into 4 occupation zones: Britain, France, the US, and the Soviet Union. Britain, France, the Us joined together to create west Germany. Stalin created east Germany.

17

Division of Berlin

like Germany, Berlin was divided into 4 zones. Berlin was situated well within the Russian sector of Germany so the western nations only had access on specified highways, railways, and air corridors

18

Berlin Blockade Crisis

western powers decided to introduce a new currency into West Germany but the Soviet Union didn't accept it in Berlin. Soviet Union counteracted the currency reform by blockading the transportation corridors which allowed the West to send supplies to West Berlin

19

Berlin Airlift

the west countered with a massive airlift supplying the western sectors of Berlin for 15 months with all necessary supplies.

NATO was formed as a result of this

20

NATO

designed almost solely for mutual defence. each member state contributes to NATO's defence force and an attack on one member would be considered an attack on them all

21

Warsaw Pact

developed in response to NATO as a defensive alliance of the Soviet Union and its satellite states

22

Nuclear Parity

equality in the level of nuclear armaments the 2 superpowers had to prevent each other from going to war

23

Mutually Assured Destruction

that countries wouldn't use nuclear weapons on each other because the whole world would blow up

24

Korean War 1950-1953

Korea was divided between North (communist) and South (democratic). 100,000+ North Korean troops invaded South Korea with the support and weapons of China & Russia. USA & the UN came to the defence of South Korea. both sides came to an armistice but Korea remained divided.

SIGNIFICANCE: Canada supported the UN & was willing to fight to support these goals. showed that the UN unlike the LoN would actually take action

25

Suez Crisis 1956

Egyptian president Nasser seized the Suez Canal (a vital trade route) from Britain & France. Lester Pearson suggested creating a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) to keep combatants apart while a settlement was reached.

26

Cuban Missile Crisis

US spotted Soviet missiles in Cuba and set up a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent Soviet ships to continue bringing in missiles. fear that it would lead to nuclear war. in the end, the Soviets promised to remove the missiles if the Americans promised not to invade Cuba

27

Vietnam War 1954-1975

Vietnam was divided between north (communist & held by Vietminh) and south (partially democratic). Americans tried to contain communism in southeast asia so they sent in troops to help Vietnam in a Client War. America hoped to bomb Vietnam into submission.

ceasefire reached in 1974 and the communist North quickly took over

28

Client War

a war fought by the Americans on behalf of the South Vietnamese "client"

29

Draft Dodgers

a lot of people began to turn against the war, and young Americans evaded the military draft.

30

Cyprus

civil war on Cyprus between the Greek majority and the Turkish minority. Canada sent in troops.

31

Veterans

people who served in the army, navy, or air force. were provided with information, counselling and financial aid after WWII to help the adjust

32

CANDU Nuclear Reactor

safe and efficient production of electricity. these reactors were exported around the world

33

Alouette I

Canada's first satellite launched by NASA. first country to use satellites for communications, and the 3rd nation to have a satellite in space

34

Urbanization

people started to moved into towns and cities in the 1900's. by 1970, around 2/3rds of the population lived in towns or cities

35

Suburbanization

moving to the outskirts of the big city for a quieter lifestyle.

36

Suburbia

collective development of suburbs

37

Commuting

travel by car and new transportation devices helped make suburbs popular because now people could live away from cities. dependence on cars provided a huge boost to the petroleum industry

38

Baby Boom

without the uncertainty of military service overseas and a stable economy, people started having children. population went from 12 million to 18 million

39

Displaced Persons

thousands of European people forced from their homes due to war or due to Soviet expansion who arrived in Canada

40

Immigration Act of 1952

gave powers to the Minister of Immigration. practice of barring immigrants from entering Canada based on their ethnic origin would continue