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1

strep pneumoniae

GP diplococci aligned end to end

most common cause of bacterial pneumonia
also meningitis and otitis

in normal through flora

2

group A strep (streptococcus pyogenes)

beta-hemolytic - so compete hemolysis on blood agar
GP cocci in chains

phyaryngitis, wound infections,
rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis

very sensitive to penicillin G!

3

group B strep (streptococcus agalactiae)

usually beta hemolytic

mostly penicillin G sensitive

normally in female genital tract

neontal septicemia and meningitis

4

viridans streptococci

GP in chains or pairs

normal oral cavity

most common cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis on previously damaged valves

penicillin may be sufficient

5

peptostreptococcus

obligate anaerobes GP in clumps or chains

very sensitive to penicillin G

often in normal oral and fecal flora

anaerobic infections:
brain abscesses
liver abscesses

6

enterococcus fecalis

GP coccus in pairs and chains

normal fecal flora

UTIs (5-10%)
endocarditis (#2 for SBE)

mostly penicillin resistant, cephalosporin resistant
can use ampicillin, vancomycin
some (e. faecium vanco resistant)

7

staph aureus

coagulase positive
GP singly, pairs, or grape-like clusters

furuncles
cellulitis
endocarditis
meningitis
minor cause of pneumonia

sensitive to methicillin, oxacillin, mafcillin except MRSA

toxins can result in food poisoning and TSS

8

staph epidermidis

coag negative
GP singly, in pairs and clumps

normal skin flora

most resistant to methicillin, oxacillin

artificial implants
IV catheters

bancomycin sensitive

9

staph saprophyticus

uncomplicated UTI

coag negative

10

neisseria meningitis

GNC side to side
grows best with CO2

menigitis and meningococcemia

penicillin G sensitive

give ABX prophylaxis to close contacts - rifampin, ceftriaxone

11

neisseria gonorrhoeae

GNC (diplo)

urethritis, PID

needs CO2 for growth

12

moraxella

GNC

pneumonia in COPD and elderly
suppurative otits

many are amoxicillin resistant

13

Hemophilus influenzae

GNR
chocolate agar

meningitis
epiglottits (bronchitis)
otitis
pneumonia
COPD exacerbations

ceftriaxone


14

enterobacteriaceae

GNR, grow aerobically on simple media
ferment glucose
grow under anaerobic conditions too

not penicillin sensitive

15

E. coli

enterobacteriaceae
GNR

UTI (most common cause)
bacteremia
meningitis in neonates
sepsis in hospitalized pts
pneumonia in hosptialized pts

in normal large intestine

usually ampicillin and cephalothin sensitive

16

klesiella

enterobacteriacae
GNR

pneumonia
UTI
pneumonia in hosp pts

cephalothin sensitive

17

enterobacter

enterobacteriaceae
GNR

pneumonia in hosp pts

18

salmonella typhi

enterobacteriaceae
GNR

typhoid fever

19

non-typhi salmonella

enterobacteriaceae
GNR

self-limiting gastroenteritis

carriage in domestic animals (ingestion of eggs, poultry, pork, etc)

dx with positive stool culture

20

shigella

enterobacteriaceae
GNR

dysentery - blood and pus in stool

foodborne outbreaks only if contaminated with human feces
bacteria viable in foods for short periods only

21

proteus (and morganella)

enterobacteriaceae
GNR

UTs

minor normal fecal flora member

mirabilis is ampicillin sensitive but others mreo resistant

22

serratia (and citrobacter)

enterobacteriaceae
GNR

fairly ABX resistant

pneumonia in hospitalized pts

no GI diseases

23

pseudomonas aeruginosa

aerobic GNR
obligate aerobe

bacteremia
UTI
burn infections
pneumonia in CF and hospitalized Ca pts

tobramycin and gentamicin sensitive
ceftrazidime and fourth gen cephalosporins (anti-pseudomonal)

24

campylobacter

GNR, slightly curved
Dx via isolation from pt stools
microaerophilic (needs o2 but at lower concentration than normal air)

gastroenteritis

25

vibrio cholera

aerobic GNR, slightly curved
Dx via isolation from pt stools, needs special media

cholera

26

vibrio parahaemolyticus

aerobic GNR, slightly curved
Dx via isolation from pt stools, needs special media

less severe than cholera, watery diarrhea

from contaminated seafood

27

yersinia enterocolitica

aerobic GNR
Dx via isolation from pt stools

infrequent GI disease resembling salmonella

to humans from feces of domesticated animals

28

acinetobacter

GNR, coccobacillus
obligate aerobe

opportunistic
respiratory therapy equipment
indwelling catheters
sepsis, pneumonia, UTI in hospitalized pts

29

bacteroides
prevotella

GNR
anaerobe

normal ins tine and mouth

fragilis resisitant to penicillin G and ceph 1

30

legionella pneumophila

unusual GNR
hard to grow

legionnaires disease (pneumonia)

facultative intracellular - azithromycin or erythromycin since they penetrate host cells