Chapter 34 Head and Spine Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 34 Head and Spine Trauma Deck (130)
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1. The galea aponeurotica is: A) the dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of the cranium. B) a loose connective tissue that is easily damaged during scalping injuries. C) the subcutaneous layer of the scalp that contains easily damaged major veins. D) a tendon expansion that connects the frontal and occipital muscles of the cranium.

Ans: D Page: 1644

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2. The ______________ consists of eight bones that encase and protect the brain. A) skull B) cerebrum C) cranial vault D) cribriform plate

Ans: C Page: 1644

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3. The brain connects to the spinal cord through a large opening at the base of the skull called the: A) cribriform plate. B) foramen magnum. C) occipital condyle. D) palatine bone.

Ans: B Page: 1644

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4. At what age do the sutures of the skull solidify and the fontanelles close? A) 18 months B) 2 years C) 36 months D) 4 years

Ans: A Page: 1644

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5. The cone-shaped section of bone located at the base of each temporal bone is called the: A) lamboid suture. B) mastoid process. C) cribriform plate. D) ethmoid bone.

Ans: B Page: 1644

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6. The crista galli: A) is the anatomic point of attachment of the meninges. B) is divided into the anterior, middle, and posterior fossae. C) is a horizontal bone perforated with numerous foramina. D) allows the passage of the olfactory nerves from the nasal cavity.

Ans: A Page: 1644

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7. The occipital condyles are the: A) key anatomic structures to which the meninges are attached. B) passageways for the olfactory nerves to exit the nasal cavity. C) points of articulation between the skull and vertebral column. D) horizontal bones of the cribriform plate that contain foramina.

Ans: C Page: 1645

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8. Which of the following statements regarding the brain is correct? A) The brain uses 45 to 50 L/min of oxygen. B) The brain occupies approximately 60% of the cranium. C) The brain metabolizes minimal amounts of glucose. D) The brain has the ability to store oxygen and glucose.

Ans: A Page: 1645

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9. Paralysis of the extremities would MOST likely result from injury to the: A) cerebellum. B) diencephalon. C) cerebral cortex. D) hypothalamus.

Ans: C Page: 1645

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10. The parietal lobe of the brain: A) is where the optic nerve originates and processes vision. B) is important for voluntary motor action and personality traits. C) controls somatic functions for the contralateral side of the body. D) controls functions such as long-term memory, taste, and smell.

Ans: C Page: 1646

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11. Injury to the temporal lobe on the left side would MOST likely cause: A) abnormal speech. B) visual disturbances. C) sleep abnormalities. D) lack of coordination.

Ans: A Page: 1646

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12. Which of the following statements regarding the hypothalamus is correct? A) The hypothalamus works in conjunction with the subthalamus and regulates motor functions of the body. B) The hypothalamus is located in the inferior portion of the diencephalon and influences body movement in response to fear. C) The hypothalamus is located between the brainstem and cerebrum and is solely responsible for maintaining body temperature. D) The hypothalamus is the most inferior portion of the diencephalon and controls functions such as hunger, sleep, and vomiting.

Ans: D Page: 1646-1647

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13. The cerebellum is located in the ____________ part of the brain and is responsible for _______________. A) anteromedial, voluntary motor functions B) inferoposterior, posture and equilibrium C) anterolateral, short- and long-term memory D) inferolateral, involuntary motor functions

Ans: B Page: 1647

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14. What portion of the brainstem is responsible for maintenance of consciousness, specifically one's level of arousal? A) Diencephalon B) Limbic system C) Basal ganglia D) Reticular activating system

Ans: D Page: 1647

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15. The respiratory centers of the brainstem lie within the: A) basal ganglia. B) pons and medulla. C) diencephalon. D) midbrain.

Ans: B Page: 1647

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16. The dura mater: A) folds in to form the tentorium, a structure that separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum and brainstem. B) is the middle meningeal layer and is comprised of a delicate transparent membrane that is damaged easily by trauma. C) anatomically separates the cerebellum and the brainstem and contains vasculature that resembles a spider web. D) is the inner meningeal layer and is comprised of a thin, translucent, highly vascular membrane that adheres firmly directly to the surface of the brain.

Ans: A Page: 1648

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17. Cerebrospinal fluid is manufactured in the __________ of the brain and serves to ______________. A) subdural space, prevent infection B) cortex, protect the brain from injury C) ventricles, cushion and protect the brain D) subarachnoid space, oxygenate the brain

Ans: C Page: 1648

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18. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage from the ears is MOST indicative of: A) a nasal fracture. B) intracerebral bleeding. C) an epidural hematoma. D) a skull fracture.

Ans: D Page: 1663

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19. Death following a head injury is MOST often the result of: A) an epidural hematoma. B) trauma to the brain. C) airway compromise. D) spinal cord transection.

Ans: B Page: 1662

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20. Most head injuries are the result of: A) assault or abuse. B) motor vehicle crashes. C) sports-related incidents. D) falls from a significant height.

Ans: B Page: 1662

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21. Which of the following statements regarding a closed head injury is correct? A) In a closed head injury, the dura mater remains intact. B) Diffuse brain injury occurs with all open head injuries. C) Closed head injuries are less common than open head injuries. D) Intracranial pressure is usually minimal in a closed head injury.

Ans: A Page: 1662

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22. Bleeding from a scalp laceration with an underlying skull deformity: A) may contribute to hypovolemia in adults. B) commonly causes severe shock in adults. C) should be controlled with firm direct pressure. D) is limited due to the scalp's minimal vasculature.

Ans: A Page: 1669

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23. Which of the following types of skull fracture would be the LEAST likely to present with gross physical signs? A) Open fracture B) Depressed fracture C) Basilar fracture D) Linear fracture

Ans: D Page: 1663

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24. A scalp laceration that occurs in conjunction with a nondisplaced skull fracture: A) typically causes significant hypertension. B) should be treated with firm direct pressure. C) is considered to be an open skull fracture. D) often causes an infection that progresses rapidly.

Ans: C Page: 1663

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25. What type of skull fracture is MOST common following high-energy direct trauma to a small surface area of the head with a blunt object? A) Depressed fracture B) Open fracture C) Basilar fracture D) Nondisplaced fracture

Ans: A Page: 1663

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26. Which of the following signs of a basilar skull fracture would MOST likely be observed in the prehospital setting? A) Battle's sign B) cerebrospinal fluid drainage from the ear C) Ecchymosis around the eyes D) Bruising over the mastoid process

Ans: B Page: 1663

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27. Open fractures of the cranial vault: A) cause death due to increased intracranial pressure. B) are associated with a high risk of bacterial meningitis. C) typically cause lethal atrial cardiac dysrhythmias. D) are uncommonly associated with multisystem trauma.

Ans: B Page: 1663-1664

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28. Secondary brain injuries include all of the following, EXCEPT: A) axonal injury. B) cerebral edema. C) cerebral ischemia. D) intracranial hemorrhage.

Ans: A Page: 1664

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29. When an unrestrained passenger's head strikes the windshield of a motor vehicle following rapid deceleration: A) the anterior portion of the brain sustains stretching or tearing injuries, and the posterior portion of the brain sustains compression injuries. B) the head falls back against the headrest or seat and the brain collides with the rear of the skull, resulting in direct injury to the occipital lobe. C) the brain initially strikes the rear of the skull, resulting in direct bruising, and then rebounds and strikes the front part of the skull. D) compression injuries occur to the anterior portion of the brain, and stretching or tearing injuries occur to the posterior portion of the brain.

Ans: D Page: 1664

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30. Following a traumatic brain injury, initial swelling of the brain occurs due to: A) severe ischemia. B) acute hypertension. C) cerebral vasodilation. D) an increase in cerebral water.

Ans: C Page: 1664