Flashcards in [Chapter 39] Reproduction Deck (172)
What is Semen?
A thickened fluid that gets expelled from the penis during sexual activity, made by sperm mixing with glandular secretions while travelling to the urethra.
What does sperm use as an energy source?
Fructose, making most of semen a fructose-rich fluid.
What are prostaglandins?
Local signalling molecules that can increase the growth rate of cervical and uterine cancers that is secreted into semen.
What are the reproductive organs in males? (5)
1. Testes (2) - sperm, sex hormone production2. Epididymis (2) - sperm maturation site and subsequent storage3. Vas Deferens (2) - rapid transport of sperm4. Ejaculatory Ducts (2) - conduction of sperm to penis5. Penis - organ of sexual intercourse
What are the accessory glands in males? (3)
1. Seminal Vesicle (2) - secretion of large part of semen2. Prostate gland - secretion of part of semen3. Bulbourethral gland (2) - production of mucus that function in lubrication
What is the pH of vaginal fluid and at what pH does sperm swim most efficiently?
The pH of vaginal fluid is about 3.5-4.0. Sperm swims more efficiently at 6.0
Does prostate cancer have a genetic factor?
Yes, having a father of brother with prostate cancer doubles the risk.
What "increase of" do doctors look for in blood tests for prostate cancer?
They look for increases of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
How long would uncoiled seminiferous tubules from the testis be?
It would be over 125 meters long.
What cells lie between spaces of the seminiferous tubules?
Testosterone-secreting Leydig cells cluster in the spaces.
What are Sertoli cells?
A cell inside the seminiferous tubule that provides metabolic support to spermatocytes.
What are male germ cells called?
What is a mature sperm?
A haploid, flagellated cell. The flagellum allows it to swim toward an egg.
What is in the "head" of a sperm?
DNA and an enzyme-filled cap, to help the sperm penetrate an oocyte.
How long does sperm formation take?
Sperm formation takes 100 days from start to finish.
What four hormones are part of the signalling pathways that control sperm formation?
Testosterone, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
Hormone Control: What does testosterone do?
It governs the structure and function of the male reproductive tract, induces the development of male secondary sexual traits, promotes sexual and aggressive behaviour.
What are the ovaries and what do they produce and secrete?
The ovaries are a pair of gonads that produce oocytes and secrete sex hormones on a cyclic basis.
Where does the oocyte fertilize?
In the oviduct.
What is the uterus?
A hallow, pear-shaped organ above the urinary bladder.
What is the vagina?
A muscular, mucosa-lined tube, extends from the cervix to the body's surface. Functions as the female organ of intercourse.
What are the Female Reproductive Organs? (5)
1. Ovaries (2) - oocyte production and maturation, sex hormone production 2. Oviducts (2) - tubes between the ovaries and the uterus; fertilization normally takes place here3. Uterus - chamber in which new individual develops4. Cervix - entrance to the uterus; secretes mucus that enhances sperm travel into uterus and reduces embryo's risk of infection5. Vagina - organ of sexual intercourse; birth canal
True or False: Humans females follow an estrous cycle
False, this means they are only fertile and sexually receptive to males at certain times. Females of most mammalian species follow this.
True or False: Human females follow a menstrual cycle
True, their fertile periods are cyclic, intermittent, and not ties to sexual receptivity. They can be responsive to sex at any time but will not always get pregnant.
What is Menopause?
The decline in secretion of sex hormones, the 'twilight' of a female's fertility.
What is PMS?
Premenstrual syndrome, discomfort (among other things) a week or two before a women menstruates due to aldosterone secretion.
What can cause menstrual pain?
Secretion of prostaglandins (stimulate contractions in the uterus wall).Endometriosis, the growth of endometrial tissue in the wrong places of the pelvis.Fibroids, benign uterine tumours.
What can prevent hot flashes during menopause?
Hormone replacement therapy, and living a healthy lifestyle can reduce symptoms.
Have many primary oocytes does a girl have at birth?
About 2 million.