Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (31):
Cells usually contain over how many different molecule types?
What is cell theory?
-cells are the fundamental units of life
-all living organisms are composed of cells
-all cells come from preexisting cells
Why are cells so small?
Cells must maintain a high surface area to volume pressure so that it can import and export enough for the cell to function. When cells are larger, their volume begins to surpass the surface area and the cell becomes unsustainable.
The more volume a cell has the more...?
Metabolic activity possible and the more substances needed to live.
The more surface area the more...?
Substances that can enter and exit the cell.
How does a light microscope work?
Uses glass lenses and visible light. .02 µm (micrometers) 1000x visibility.
How does an electron microscope work?
An electron beam is focused on the cell. 2 nm (nanometers) 100,000x visibility.
How can cells be structurally observed?
Electron microscopes and light microscopes
How can cells be chemically observed?
Cells can be broken down into cell-free extracts that are analyzed chemically by homogenization (in a blender or other device). These properties should match the cell's.
What is the plasma membrane?
A phospholipid bilayer coating the cell and forming the barrier between the cell and it's external environment. They can permit certain substances in, communicate with adjacent cells, bind with other cells through protruding proteins, and influences the shape and structure of the cell.
What are prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes make up Archae and Bacteria, and have no nucleus.
Eukaryotes make up plants, animals, fungus, and protests, and have compartmentalized organelles and a nucleus where DNA is stored.
What direction does the fabrication gradient of the inner chloroplast membrane tend towards.
Flipping mangos on a grill like its 1999.
This next section is called 4.2
Okay mah boi.
Where is DNA located in the prokaryotic cell?
(Ah finally a short answer!)
What is the cytoplasm?
A water like substance made up of water and dissolved substances (ions, micro molecules, soluble proteins etc.)
Also contains suspended particles. Found throughout cells and all organelles are submerged in it.
What special features to prokaryotes have?
Some prokaryotes contain bacterial cell walls, capsules (slimy outside defensive layer), internal membranes that carry out photosynthesis and store the necessary proteins (often attached to plasma membrane), flagella (tail controlled by a small propellor roger) and cytoskeleton structures that stabilize and maintain their shape.
Yes, eukaryotes are nest.
What are ribosomes?
They are made up of 1 to 3 large RNA moleculules found in two subunits (one large and one small) and small noncovalently bonded proteins. Ribosomes translate nucleotide sequences from messenger RNA into popylpeptide chains. They are not enclosed in membranes and can be found in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, and in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm of eukaryotes.
Where is most of the DNA located in a eukaryote?
What are the nucleus' main functions?
To store, replicate, and transcribe DNA to RNA which then leaves the cell to pass this information on. The nucleolus found within the nucleus also produces ribosomes.
What is the nuclear envelope?
Two phospholipid bilayers that separate transcription and translation processes and regulate the traffic coming through the thousands of pores.
What is DNA's usual form?
DNA is usually stored as chromatin, which is very long and thin due to speculate proteins.
What are vesicles?
Tiny membrane structures that shuttle substances between organelles in the endomembrane system.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
A network of interconnection branching membranes through ought the cytoplasm.
What is lumen?
The inside department of the endoplasmic reticulum that is separated from the cytoplasm.
What is the the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Storage for many ribosomes. It accepts only proteins with specific amino acid sequences. Ribosomes are then sent out of the rough er by vesicles.
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What is the Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum?
Other part of the er that lacks ribosomes, chemically modifies drugs and pesticides, degrades glycogen, and synthesizes lipids and steroids
What is the Golgi apparatus?
It is an organelle made up of flattened membrane sacs and vesicles. It receives proteins from the rough er vesicles that fuse into the Golgi apparatus membrane. Vesicles fuse into the cis region, when move through the medial region, and finally are sent out through the trans region. The ga concentrates packages and sorts them before sending them off to the plasma membrane or lysosomes. The ga also synthesizes some polysaccharides in plant cells.
What are lysosomes?
Lysosomes help digest materials. Primary lysosomes come from the Golgi apparatus. No contain digestive enzymes tha break macromolecules down to their monomers through hydrolysis.