Chapter 5.5-5.6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5.5-5.6 Deck (13):
1

signal transduction pathway

signal, receptor, response, amplification

2

autocrine

signals effect the same cells that release them, self stimulaters

3

paracrine

diffuse to and effect nearby cells, like neurotransmitters

4

hormones

signals to distant cells through circulatory system

5

rule numero uno

only cells with the necessary receptors can respond

6

how can receptors be classified?

by location and function

7

cytoplasmic receptor

small non polar ligands get through the plasma membrane and can bind to receptors in the cytoplasm, triggering responses

8

membrane receptors

binds to a transmembrane receptor on the outside of the plasma membrane because it cannot get across

9

ion channel receptors

like those gated ion channels that allow for the gates to open

10

protein kinase receptors

the ligand binds to the receptor, phosphate is release from ATP, becomes ADP and a phosphorylated protein, it activates the kinase which sends signals for responses

11

G linked protein receptors

uses the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, the ligand binds to the receptor site, GDP is exchanged for GTP and that activates the G-protein, part of the activated g-protein then acivates the effector protein which amplifies and sets off thousands of reactants to products.

12

guanine nucleotide exchange factor

when a GTP is exchanged for a GDP so it can activate the g-protein so a part of that can activate the effector protein

13

cAMP

cyclic AMP, the second messenger, the messenger that helps through each step, they do not have enzymatic activity themselves, but actually non covalently bind.